Не получается сделать. Надо срочно сделать реферат по языкам (переводам). Есть буквально 1 день. Тема работы «По данному тексту написать реферат на англ.яз (саму суть). А потом перевести его на русский язык».
По данному тексту написать реферат на англ.яз (саму суть). А потом перевести его на русский язык
An assessment of the firm. This evaluation should include corporate goals and philosophy as well as financial and production capabilities and marketing support in terms of distribution and the sales force.
An assessment of the environment. Analysis here includes factors that impact upon the firm but cannot be affected by the firm: economy, societal issues, seasonality, availability of resources, and legal issues.
Each of these and many other areas will be developed in the situation analysis. Having done a thorough evaluation, management will set objectives and positioning. The objectives and positioning must be extremely precise so that the later strategies can be evaluated for appropriateness. The major value of setting specific objectives and position will be to eliminate poor strat
The objective is a clear statement of target market, time deadline, and task of the message in terms of marketplace response. This is coupled with a positioning statement that describes how the target should perceive the product relative to the competition. At this point that the art and science of advertising meet. Science will have been used to develop a clear picture of the situation and, in turn, will have led to specific objectives. Through the use of the decision sequence the art can be channeled in the appropriate direction so that the captivating message also deals with the relevant problem.
Having specifically defined goals and direction, the next step of the decision sequence is to develop strategies. Having the situation analysis and objectives and positioning to refer to will help create the necessary focus and coordination.
After developing strategies, their worth must be assessed. Budgeting strategies deal with these issues. Human nature seems to lead to grandiose strategies that are generally accompanied by high costs. When costs may exceed the resources of the firm, an evaluation must be made about whether to spend more to meet goals or to scale down the goals.
As strategies are developed, budget constraints must be considered. These constraints often will force the manager to reconsider strategies and objectives. Updating can occur not only during planning but also as the plan is executed and/or evaluated. While the crux of the budget evaluation should occur as a response to the proposed objectives and strategy plans, budget constraints must first be determined as part of the situation analysis. Managers should assess the possible range of budgets during the situation analysis so that the first attempt in the planning of objectives and strategies will be realistic.
After the planning has been completed, the campaign is produced; then it is implemented and evaluated. In some cases it will first be used in test markets so that its impact can be evaluated at a low cost. When the test market is deemed to be a success (or often without a test market), the full-blown campaign is implemented in the entire market area. After a period of time (usually 6—12 months) evaluation begins. Often the evaluation research will be a repeat of the situation analysis research so comparisons can be made and success or failure relative to the objectives can be measured. This evaluative research, then, becomes part of the situation analysis for the next time period.
In addition to this general marketplace research, the decision sequence implies the need for other research during each type of strategy development and during early stages of implementation. It is routine in many agencies to test message strategy to see if it reflects the desired position and elicits the desired response from the target market. Media plans are tested less routinely, although it is equally necessary to know if the message is delivered to the target witlrsufficient impact to meet objectives.
The decision sequence model suggests that objectives be clearly defined in terms of the task of the message or the promotion. This task is generally considered in terms of the response sought from the target audience. Although there are many possible responses, these can be grouped into three distinct categories: Awareness, Attitude, Behavior
All messages and promotions attempt to influence at least one of these responses. Either the message wants the consumer to become aware, to develop a positive attitude toward something, or to behave toward something.
The hierarchy of effects concept states that consumers must pass through a series of stages from unawareness to brand loyalty. In early models there was a set ordering to these effects so that:
Awareness → Attitude → Behavior
It is important to keep in mind that all responses fit into the three categories. Marketers want to affect what consumers know, feel, or do.
A concept that will be central to virtually all managerial decisions concerning advertising is that of involvement In its most basic form, this concept forces the manager to ask if anyone out there in the target market cares about the product or brand. Brand managers (for the manufacturer), account executives (for the advertising agency), or store managers (for the retailer) are vitally concerned with their products and may have difficulty understanding that consumers do not always care which brand they use.
There are basically three levels of involvement:
No involvement = There is no interest in the product class and no purchase behavior takes place.
Low involvement = There is enough interest in the product class that the product is used, but there is insufficient interest to cause the consumer to make careful brand choice evaluations.
High involvement = There is interest in the product class and also enough concern about brand differences to lead to a careful evaluation of the available choices prior to the purchase decision.
The high- and low-involvement categories relate to the ordering of the components of the hierarchy of effects. If there is low involvement, then there may not be enough interest to generate an attitude before trial behavior; instead, a purchase is made but no feeling is established toward the brand until after it is used.
Stimulus-response model. The world is made up of stimuli and responses; the responses described in the hierarchy of effects model are the result of a wide range of stimuli. When a firm advertises, it is sending a stimulus and seeking a response:
S Advertising → R Awareness, Attitude, or Behavior
Most commonly, advertising creates awareness. Various components of verbal learning theory in psychology suggest ways by which the nature and intensity of advertising will enhance the probability of learning.
S Advertising → R Awareness
Cognitive psychologists complicate the model by inferring that some process occurs within the individual that mediates the simple S → R process. This can be seen as:
S → O → R , where О represents some process internal to the organism. This reflects a situation where the consumer makes an evaluation in addition to the rote learning described by the S → R model. For an advertiser:
S Advertising → O → R Attitude
Behavioral psychologists put forth a different view of human nature. Their model of operant conditioning asserts that people respond to anticipated consequences of their behavior. In this view
R1 → S → P(R2)
Here a behavior (R1) occurs and is reinforced by a stimulus (S). If the stimulus is perceived favorably, the probability (P) of a future similar behavior (R2) occurring is increased; if the reinforcing stimulus is not perceived favorably, the probability of future similar behavior decreases.
If management feels that its product is good, it also may provide artificial inducements (samples and coupons) for the first behavior to occur so that later repeat purchase can develop more rapidly. Often there are also promotions (coupons, premiums, money refund offers) given along with the product to enhance the probabilities of repeat behavior. These can be seen as
S Sample → R Trial Purchase → S Product → R Repeat Purchase
Perhaps use of the product also leads to favorable feelings (attitudes) This would be shown as:
R Trial Purchase → S Product→ R Attitude → R Repeat Purchase
Accurate one-way mass communications (the goal of advertising) is very difficult to achieve. Schramm has developed a model to show the potential problems associated with one-way communications:
Source → Encodes → Signal → Decodes → Destination
(Communicator) (Message) (Receiver)
(Firm) (Advertising) (Consumer)
Schramm identifies four problem areas:
1. Source→Encodes. If the source perceives the problem incorrectly and, as a result, develops and encodes the wrong concept, it cannot possibly communicate correctly. A good situation analysis is essential if the sender is to understand the problem properly. Скрыть
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