The development of university governance types in Britain over the last nine hundred years hasnot been a linear process. New types of governance structures co-exist with earlier species. One cannot help but compare the youngest governance structure,dominated by external interests overseeing the operations of the university, and the earliest,dominated by internal, academic interests. Some authors have signaled that the late twentiethcentury marked a breakdown in the academic-led collegial governance tradition of Paris, Oxfordand Cambridge. Recent governance debates at Oxford and Cambridge have considered the inclusion of more laymembers at the highest levels of their institutional governance. This begs the question: does this signal the beginning of the end of a university govern
Показать всеance type? Will the academically-led governance structure becomeextinct after nine hundred years? The answer to this question has yet to be answered.Furthermore, the answer may be more complex than a simple affirmative or negative. Asconservative as they are, Oxford and Cambridge, like all universities, have evolved over time.The roles and responsibilities their governing bodies now have are different than those of thetwelfth, sixteenth or nineteen centuries. Although different species of university governance maycontinue to coexist, they must also continue to evolve. Their success, and survival, depends upon it.
Thus, the analysis of universities of Great Britain showed that the most top places of a rating are held by the oldest universities of the country. It is caused by that these universities have a pancake house history, the traditions and ability to give quality education during any period of time. Also It should be noted that undoubted advantage of old universities of Great Britain is their name which is enough to get a good job. Oxbridge is a part of this elite category of universities and offers a huge number of different specialties for students of the whole world that does it to the most competitive in the market of educational services as Great Britain, and the world. Скрыть
The educational system is the most demanded product in the market. At the expense of educational system any state and society receives the qualified employees who are capable to influence development of policy, economy and country society. In this regard to arise a question of quality of educational services offered in the market and their level. It should be noted that universities with long history, as a rule, have huge advantage in comparison with new universities. It is connected with creation of a known brand, and also prestigiousness of training at ancient university.
Objective of this research - to carry out the comparative analysis of modern British universities and Oxbridge.
For achievement of a goal it is necessary to solve the following problems:
- to open evolut
Показать всеion of management by universities;
- to analyze a rating of leading universities of Britain for 2013-2014;
- to analyze characteristics of universities of the first ten.
Relevance of research is caused by that the set of universities which are ready to provide training services opens now. It should be noted also that many of them successfully come to the international level and can accept foreign students educating them the international level. However at all positive lines of modern universities, they have also negative sides. They have no such quality assurance, as at ancient universities of Great Britain, in particular Oxbridge. In this regard there is actual a studying of distinctive features of old British universities from modern analogs. Скрыть
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part 1. Evolution of university governance types 3
Part 2. Rating of British universities in 2014. 9
Part 3. Comparative analysis of top ten universities of Great Britain 12
1. Joint Statement on London Metropolitan University. (2009) Higher Education Funding Councilfro England. [Online]. Available from: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/news/hefce/2009/lmu.htm.
2. Beesemyer, L. (2006)Who runs Oxford?: an examination of the university's governance structures. Thesis (M.Sc. Higher Education)-University of Oxford, 2006.
3. Boggs, A.M. (2007)Ontario's Royal Commission on the University of Toronto, 1905-1906:Political and historical factors that influenced the final report of the Flavelle Commission. Master of Arts. University of Toronto.
4. Doern, B. (2008)"Polytechnics" in Higher Education Systems: a comparative review and policyimplications for Ontario. Toronto ON: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.
5. Evans, G.R. (2009) And now what about ref
Показать всеorming Cambridge governance? Higher Education Review, 41 (2), pp. 3-22.
6. Evans, G.R. (2007) The Oxford governance debate: HEFCE and the wider implications. Higher Education Review, 39 (3), pp. 3-26.
7. Fallis, G. (2007) Multiversities, ideas and democracy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
8. Flexner, A. (1968) Universities: American, English, German.London UK: Oxford UniversityPress.
9. Griffiths, S. (2009) John Hood: This place needed a shake-up - the outgoing Oxford vice-chancellor reveals why he was right to take on the dons.The Times. [Online]. Availablefrom: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/article6688617.ece.
10. Halsey, A.H. (1995) Decline of Donnish Dominion: the British academicprofessions in thetwentieth century.first ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
11. Hodges, L. and Garner, R. (2009) London Met warned that it could be closed.The Independent.[Online]. Available from: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/london-met-warned-that-it-could-be-closed-1835511.html>.
12. Labi, A. (2007)The U. of Oxford Projects Unity After Rejecting Governance Changes.Washington DC: The Chronicle of Higher Education.Lubenow, W.C. (2000) University History and the History of Universities in the NineteenthCentury.The Journal of British Studies,39 (2), pp. 247-262.
13. MacLeod, D. (2009)Cambridge dons retain control of university.The Guardian. [Online].Available from: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/mar/20/cambridge-dons-control>.
14. McKillop, A.B. (1994) Matters of the Mind: the university in Ontario 1791-1951.
15. first ed.Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
16. Nardi, P. (1992) Relations with Authority. In A History of the University in Europe: Universitiesin the Middle Ages., eds. W. Ruegg andH. de Ridder-Symoens,Cambridge UK: CambridgeUniversity Press, pp. 77-107.
17. Newman, J.H. (1960)The Idea of a University.4th ed. New York NY: Holt, Rinehart andWinston.
18. Newman, M. (2007)Oxford v-c to go but reform still on the agenda.Times Higher EducationSupplement. [Online]. Available from:<http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=311206§ioncode=26.Pratt, J. (1997)The Polytechnic Experiment, 1965-1992.Buckingham UK: The Society forResearch into Higher Education & Open University Press.
19. Rothblatt, S. (1997)The modern university and its discontents : the fate of Newman's legacies in Britain and America.Cambridge: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
20. Rudolf, F. (1990)The American College and University: a history.second ed. Athens, GA:University of Georgia Press.
21. Ruegg, W. (1996) Themes. In A History of the University in Europe: Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500-1800).Ed. H. De Ridder-Symoens, First ed. Cambridge UK:Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-42.
22. Schwinges, R.C. (1992) Student Education, Student Life. In A History of the University in Europe: universities in the middle ages., ed. H. De Ridder-Symoens,Cambridge UK:Cambridge University Press, pp. 195-242.
23. Shattock, M. (2006) Managing good governance in higher education.Maidenhead: OpenUniversity Press.Tapper, T. and Palfreyman, D. (2002) Understanding collegiality: the changing Oxbridge model.Tertiary Education and Management,8, pp. 47-63.
24. Tapper, T. and Palfreyman, D. (2000)Oxford and the Decline of the Collegiate Tradition.London UK: Woburn Press.
25. Thelin, J.R. (2004) A History of American Higher Education.first ed. Baltimore, MD: JohnsHopkins University Press.
26. University of Oxford (2006)White Paper on University Governance.Oxford UK: OxfordUniversity Gazette.
27. University of Oxford (2005)Oxford's Governance Structure: a green paper.
28. Oxford UK: OxfordUniversity Gazette. Скрыть
Generally, four years after graduation, Oxbridge graduates can, upon paying a nominal fee, convert their B.A. degree into an M.A. degree, without further academic work. That much is common knowledge. However, they also then can, on entering the Oxford League and enduring humiliating rituals (e.g., having to work in a job), receive a Ph.D. degree, without further academic work; this conversion process is called "getting the third degree".2.Modern changes in OxbridgePupils from private schools have been a significant presence at Oxford and Cambridge, known collectively as Oxbridge, for decades, despite the fact that only 7% of British students attend them. (The point is often made by the universities that despite privately-educated students being in the minority, they make up approximately
Показать всеone-third of the students with high enough grades to apply to Oxbridge — thereby constituting a larger pool of eligible candidates.) In a country with the lowest social mobility in the Western world according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Oxford and Cambridge rank last among large research-intensive U.K. universities in terms of students drawn from public schools. In 2010–11, just 2.5% of Oxford students and 3.1% of Cambridge students came from low-participation neighborhoods, and both universities scored below admission benchmarks calculated by the Higher Education Statistics Agency, a non-governmental body, for students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, admitting around 10% from that group.That matters because those left behind are less likely to join the ranks of Britain’s elites. Over 30% of leading professionals in the U.K., including almost 80% of the judiciary, 47% of highflyers in financial services and 41% of top journalists attended Oxbridge, according to recent studies by the Sutton Trust, a U.K. educational charity. Every university-educated Prime Minister since 1937 has walked one of the two universities’ halls save Gordon Brown . (Prime Minister David Cameron and his deputy, Nick Clegg, both attended top private schools and then Oxbridge, as did approximately two-thirds of their Cabinet.) This isn’t just bad news for the clever, underprivileged students who don’t attend Oxbridge — it’s bad news for Britain, which draws its elites from an artificially narrow pool that is largely cut off from the country at large.Cambridge and Oxford have in recent years ramped up their existing efforts, which got underway over a decade ago, to actively seek out underprivileged students. Oxford now spends $4 million a year on student outreach, up from $1.6 million in 2006–07. While some of that money is still used to recruit from posh private schools, much is spent on school visits and teacher-training sessions aimed at encouraging poor and minority students to apply to the university. In 2010, Oxford also launched a summer school, which gives some 500 academically talented, state-school students a chance to experience studying at Oxford for a week. (Previously, Oxford hosted summer schools for unprivileged students set up and funded by the nonprofit Sutton Trust starting in the late 1990s. Cambridge continues to run and largely fund a Sutton Trust summer school program.) In addition, the university admissions office highly recommends to tutors that qualified students from poor areas be invited for interviews. And it has set a target of increasing the number of undergrads from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas from 6.1% to 9% by 2016–17.Much of this is due to pressure from outside. In 2010, a Member of Parliament from the left-leaning Labour Party, David Lammy, launched a campaign to encourage diversity at Oxbridge after examining admissions data obtained via freedom-of-information requests. He found that almost 90% of the student body at both universities is drawn from the upper and middle classes, that Oxford accepted only one British black Caribbean undergraduate who declared his or her ethnicity in 2009, and that in 2008 and 2009, Oxford held 21% of its outreach events at private schools, including 12 at Kate Middleton’s school, Marlborough College, and nine at Prince William’s alma mater, Eton College. (State school students were invited.) Lame’s exposé, which received a flurry of press attention, led Cameron to describe the situation at Oxbridge as “disgraceful.” (His remarks, prefaced by the statement: “I saw figures the other day that showed that only one black person went to Oxford last year,” came under criticism from Oxford and others as inaccurate. One British black Caribbean undergraduate was accepted that year, out of the 27 black undergraduates admitted from the U.K. Cameron’s office responded by noting that the Prime Minister was making a “wider point” about “black and minority ethnic groups” at “universities like Oxford.”)Around the same time, the government began a push to speed change at Oxbridge. In February 2012, Liberal Democrats in the U.K. coalition government pushed through the appointment of a new head of the independent public body charged with safeguarding fair access to higher education, the Office for Fair Access, Les Ebdon, who has indicated his intention to negotiate “challenging” diversity targets with English universities, in exchange for allowing them to charge up to $14,500 per year in tuition fees.All told, these efforts seem to be having an effect. Last year, Oxford announced that it accepted a record number of state-school applicants, 57.7%, for the incoming 2011 class. In September 2012, Cambridge announced that it admitted 63.3% state-school students for 2012–13, up from 58% the year before.Yet critics say while both universities are on the right path, the problem is far from solved. According to the Sutton Trust, about 90% of the “public-school students” accepted by Oxbridge were plucked from schools with above average levels of attainment, including selective grammar schools akin to New York’s famed Bronx High School of Science. And within the universities’ constituent undergraduate colleges — which oversee admissions individually — there are deep inconsistencies in efforts to track down bright underprivileged undergraduates. There has been progress — colleges like Mansfield at Oxford and King’s at Cambridge are really going out of their way to recruit the best and the brightest wherever they are. But the lion’s share of colleges simply aren’t pulling their weight. Pembroke is one college beginning to pull its weight, thanks to the efforts of Professor Claus and others at Pembroke to make equality of opportunity a priority. In September, the college announced a 10-year strategy for outreach to underprivileged students, including the expansion of the Pem-Brooke program to schools in the northwest of England.But even at Pembroke, these efforts are relatively recent. Until 2008, the college confined itself to the traditional “outreach” activities, opening its halls to potential applicants who cared to come and hosting visiting schoolchildren. This meant, in essence, that the college was preaching to the converted. “Activities that try and get people who were perhaps not thinking about Oxford,” says Mark Fricker, academic director of Pembroke. “Up until the Pem-Brooke scheme [in 2008], our activities in those areas were pretty slim.”Sitting in Pembroke’s elegant faculty room, Claus, whose warm demeanor belies the stereotype of the aloof Oxford academic, reflects on why Britain’s two oldest universities have come so late to the game. It’s the pressure to publish that keeps academics from throwing themselves into outreach work, he says, balancing a cup of tea. But his own underprivileged background — he came to his history professorship via Ruskin College, an adult-education institution in Oxford — means he’s taken a special interest. “I have to do it,” he says.The centerpiece of the Pem-Brooke project in Hackney, one of the roughest parts of London, is a room similar to an Oxford professor’s study, built right in the heart of BSix. Called the Red Room, it’s meant to get poor students used to the sort of surroundings they might encounter at an Oxbridge admission interview — during which a university academic invites a prospective undergrad into her study, hands him a cup of tea and ruthlessly probes the limits of his intelligence. When the replica professor’s room first hit the papers in March, some in the press called it a gimmick. But Claus says creating an elevating space in the school — a modern building next to a concrete tower block — was crucial. “We wanted to get away from education as training,” he says, referencing the common idea that poor students would be better off learning to be car mechanics or carpenters. “Education is for life.”So, if you're lucky enough to figure among the alumni of the University of Oxford, you're likely to have heard the news: your place of learning needs cash. Lots of it. In late May, Oxford launched the most ambitious fund-raising drive ever undertaken by a European university, aimed at boosting its coffers by at least $2.5 billion. The eager among you have chipped in already — helping Oxford to more than $1 billion so far — but there are many that haven't. 3. New British Universities : difference from OxbridgeIn fact, two categories of institutions have been given this label: those created in the 1960s less often called Plate Glass Universities, which were known as "New Universities" when first created, but which are now more commonly considered a sub-section of the "Old Universities" which existed prior to the 1992 changes which allowed Polytechnics to become Universities, and those created in or after 1992 often called Post-1992 universities, from polytechnics and colleges of Higher Education, which are the Universities most commonly referred to as "New Universities" in the present day. Two types of universities are subsumed under the term "New Universities". First of all the academic institutions founded in the 1960s after the Robins Report. Besides recommending immediate expansion of universities, the Report also suggested elevating Colleges of Advanced Technology to university status.Due to their modern architecture and the predominant use of large stretches of plate glass in steel or concrete frames, the institutions founded in the 1960s are often called "Plate Glass Universities". Some Plate glass universities such as York and Warwick have by now out-performed some Red Brick universities, especially on the field of research, which has improved their reputation considerably.Here is a proximate list of Plate Glass Universities with links to each institution: Aston University, Brunel University,University of Bath, University of Bradford, University of Essex, Heriot-Watt University, University of Kent, University of Keele, University of Lancaster, Loughborough University, University of Salford, University of Stirling, University of Sussex, University of Warwick, New University of Ulster, University of York. Plus- The Open University, founded in 1968 is Britain's sole mainly distance-learning University.The University of London and the University of Wales have since their inception been federal universities. That is, a governing body with over all responsibility for the maintenance of standards at the constituent colleges. Recently, however, there has been considerable pressure from the larger colleges to become completely autonomous institutions. An example of this would be the continued efforts of Imperial College London to gain autonomy from the federal University of London, or Cardiff University leaving the University of Wales. The University of Buckingham is the sole private university of the UK. Скрыть
Автор24 - это фриланс-биржа. Все работы, представленные на сайте, загружены нашими пользователями, которые согласились с правилами размещения работ на ресурсе и обладают всеми необходимыми авторскими правами на данные работы. Скачивая работу вы соглашаетесь с тем что она не будет выдана за свою, а будет использована исключительно как пример или первоисточник с обязательной ссылкой на авторство работы.
Если вы правообладатель и считаете что данная работа здесь размещена без вашего разрешения - пожалуйста, заполните форму и мы обязательно удалим ее с сайта.
за 10 минут
Эта работа вам не подошла?
У наших авторов вы можете заказать любую учебную работу от 200 руб.
Оформите заказ и авторы начнут откликаться уже через 10 минут!