Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work. Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation.
2) Trafficking in the world
3) Trafficking and slavery in the RF
4) Research - Immigration the USA - Immigration in the RF
With people crossing into the United State with the intention of manipulating and forcing honest citizens to do things against their will it becomes an issue of national importance.Human trafficking also causes many health risks for the United States. The victims of Human Trafficking are at a high risk of developing mental problems. In addition, many of the female victims of human trafficking in the United States are coerced into prostitution.As a result, they are at a high risk of contracting STD's. Another problem is unwanted pregnancies as a consequence of rape. This can cause psychological damage to the new born and further economic stress on tax payers. Human trafficking can also lead to deformity because of the fact that victims are forced to work long hours in dangerous environments
Показать все.As a result, if injured they are left to die or lack proper medical attention until the injured body part is in need of amputation. The health risk of human trafficking is a major problem in the United States and needs to be dealt with."The United States of America is principally a transit and destination country for trafficking in persons. It is estimated that 14,500 to 17,500 people, primarily women and children, are trafficked to the U.S. annually" (Human Trafficking). This means that America is the main delivery point for human trafficking.The reason is because people from developing countries are more vulnerable to being manipulated. As a result traffickers obtain victims in under developed nations and try to sell them in America. One of the main reasons why Americans are less vulnerable is that they are more informed about human trafficking.This is because of the high standard of living in the United States that makes it easy to access mass media information related to this issue. But the United States still faces many problems in dealing with human trafficking.One of the biggest international criticisms on the U.S. policy of combating human trafficking is that it has a low prosecution rate and its prevention strategy is yet to show empirical results.The effects of human trafficking in China are many. One of the main is the exploitations of women. This problem is amplified due to the Chinese policy of allowing only one child per family. As a result, many families abort their female daughters in pursuit of a male heir.Consequently, the trend has led to a shortage of woman in China, thus leading Chinese men to buy woman from human traffickers (Hughes 6). In addition, many women from rural areas are kidnapped and brought to karaoke clubs for prostitution.This is a major problem for China because many of their future adults are being raised in prostitution houses. Another effect of human trafficking in China is an increase in sex tourism fostered by western men seeking to have sex with under-aged women.Another problem in China is forced labor due to human trafficking. As a result of China trying the close the gap between the industrialized nations a need for cheap and free labor is at an all time high. This fact has lead to the rise of internal human trafficking from rural areas to the coastal cities.Many Chinese victims in poverty stricken rural areas are deceived by false information about obtaining jobs and being provided with a better education. These laborers are forced to work long hour under awful and dangerous working conditions.China is considered to be a source, transit, and a destination for human trafficking. The reason it is a source of human trafficking is because many Chinese women and children are transported to other foreign nations.On arrival to their nation of servitude many of the women from the richer rural areas are employed in the commercial sex business, hair salons, and massage parlors (Human Trafficking).China is a transit because it harbors human trafficking victims that are headed to different parts of the world. Many are heading to a destination for prostitution and forced marriages (Human Trafficking).China is also considered a destination because many human traffickers take victims from other nations to sell to Chinese employers for a profit. The employers are then free to treat these victims as they see fit.As a result of being a source, transit, and destination China is being condemned by international organizations that are involved in the protection of human trafficking.Internal human trafficking is another major issue facing China. Human Trafficking states, China has a significant amount of internal trafficking of children for sexual and labor exploitation. Estimates on the number of victims range from 10,000 to 20,000 each year.International organizations report that 90 percent of internal trafficking victims are women and children, trafficked primarily from Anhui, Henan, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou Provinces to prosperous provinces along the east coast" (Human Trafficking).This shows the precise location of the movement of the marginalized in China and the trend of being kidnapped and brought to coastal areas. As the empirical evidence affirms human traffickers like to prey on those that are most vulnerable in society.Consequently, many of the victims that are displaced from their homes are women and children. All this internal movement of people has made human trafficking an important priority for the People's Republic of China.In the coming years China will be under international pressure to improve on its enforcement of internal human trafficking. Many international human rights laws are being violated by the continuing effects of internal human trafficking in China.The responses of the United States of America compared to China are different.As a result of the United States having more resources it was able to institute government programs aimed at human trafficking. China being a developing country lacks the resources needed to make a comprehensive over haul of its legal system.On the other hand, the United State has the wealth, man power, and influence to start a global war against human trafficking. The United States has realized that in order to put a stop to human trafficking transnational effort is necessary. Ralf Emmers writes,The United Nations (UN) defines transnational crime as offenses whose inception, prevention and/or direct or indirect effects involved more than one country.Transnational crimes must be differentiated from international crimes, which are recognized by and can therefore be prosecuted under international law, and domestic crimes that fall under one nation jurisdiction. In order to be considered a transnational, a crime must involve the crossing of border or jurisdiction".This shows how difficult a problem human trafficking is for a nation to solve without the intervention of the international community. In addition, China has a difficult time with responding to human trafficking because it is home to the Chinese triads. This gang is one of the largest and most dangerous in the entire world.The fact that China is a developing nation with many problems with inequality and financial security the Chinese triads are able to pay of government officials and other members of enforcement for human trafficking.However in the United States individual states have taken the initiative to reform their legal systems to combat human trafficking. Twenty-four States have passed code revision or comprehensive anti-trafficking laws.Eight states have formed task forces and researched commission legislation. Three states have pending anti-trafficking bills. Lastly, one State has a pending anti-trafficking task force and research commission bill.All this is possible because the United States is a Democratic Constitutional nation that gives reserved powers to each individual state to deal with regional problems as they assess to be valid.China does not have this ability because of the way its government is structured. As a result, China's response to the problem of human trafficking has been slower.The United States has taken legal measures and reorganized its agencies to respond to human trafficking. Firstly, Congress passed laws that make it a criminal offense for Americans to have sex with children outside the United States with a maximum sentence of 30 years.Therefore, U.S citizens cannot take advantage of the international sex tourism in other countries without legal ramifications. Secondly, one of the United States government agencies is establishing a system to certify trafficking victims so they qualify for the same benefits as refugees.Thirdly, the Department of Labor and Homeland Security, USAID, are trying to execute ways of dealing with human trafficking. Lastly, other departments in the United States government are working on mandatory training programs.The United States is also responding to human trafficking on an international level. In fact, the State Department is working with other governments on plans to stop human trafficking. It has implemented the three P's doctrine: Prevention, Protection, and Prosecution.In addition Congress has allocated 70 million dollars in funding internationally to end human trafficking. Also the Department of State has to deliver a mandatory report to Congress each year expressing the efforts of foreign governments to end human trafficking.The reason for these strict standards is the U.S. law called the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. This law entails details about enforcement, and prevention of human trafficking with the goal of eradicating human trafficking. It also allows for victims to obtain a visa.Wade F. Horn writes... 'Since the Protection Act's passage in October 2000, nearly 400 trafficking victims have received this HHS certification. The Protection Act establishes several criteria for receiving certification: Individuals must be determined to be victims of a severe form of trafficking1; Adult victims must either have been granted '˜continued presence' status by the Attorney General, ensuring their stay to aid in the Prosecution of the traffickers, or have made a bona fide '˜T' visa application to the Department of Homeland Security; Adult victims must be willing to assist in every reasonable way in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers'.China has been improving its response to human trafficking gradually. The country now provides short term shelters and medical care for trafficking victims.They have also started awareness programs to help its citizens identify human traffickers and the means that are used to manipulate vulnerable people.The Chinese government has now placed anti-trafficking as an important issue on their political agenda therefore allowing for more resources to be allocated to the problem.China has also made strides to develop a database on trafficking and moved from combating trafficking to anti-trafficking. As the empirical evidence asserts the response of the United States and China to human trafficking has been different.The reasons for these differences can be attributed to their governmental structure and the culture of each country. The United States has a higher GDP, making it easier for it to allocate resources to meet the needs of combating human trafficking. However, China is taking some similar measures as the United States like improved awareness for their people.2. Trafficking and slavery in the RFThe Russian Federation (Russia) is a source, transit and destination for people trafficked for purposes of forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation. Make no mistake - human trafficking prevails in "epidemic proportions" in many countries. However, the story of women from Ghana and other parts of Africa, trafficked to Russia for commercial sex purposes caught my attention.Ghana's [diplomatic] Mission in Russia and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia carried out an investigation which uncovered a human trafficking and prostitution ring which operates between Ghana and Russia. It's specialized in recruiting young Ghanaian woman for commercial sex work in Moscow and other cities in Russia. The Ghanaian Mission in Moscow notes that 10 of the women are in custody of 3 Nigerians and each of the 10 women had been requested to pay between $35,000 and $45,000, in order to obtain their freedom.According to a report on the findings of the investigation, young women in Ghana are enticed by the promise of further education in Russian Universities. Upon arrival, they're kept in confinement and their documents and personal items are confisticated. Those who prove to be non-cooperative are maltreated. According to the report, "the girls are being subjected to rape, torture and assault."It's worth mentioning that not only Ghanaian women are African victims of human trafficking for the purpose of commercial sex in Russia. According to the report, "two Nigerian prostitutes were thrown down to their death from apartment buildings." The Ghana Mission in Moscow estimated that there're over 500 Nigerian and Cameroonian girls engaged in prostitution in Russia and said the prostitution activities affect the behaviour of African students in the region, especially at the People's Friendship University.In my opinion, the collaborative investigation undertaken by Ghana's mission in Moscow and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia was successful, at least to an extent. Скрыть
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