В словаре представлено 50 экономических терминов.Для каждого термина дается 1-3 определение на английском, 2-3 предложения с этим термином, 5-10 устоявшихся словосочетаний.
Кандидатский с таким словарем сдан на отлично.
- an itemized summary of expected income and expenditure of a country, company, etc., over a specified period, usually a financial year
- an estimate of income and a plan for domestic expenditure of an individual or a family, often over a short period, such as a month or a week
These two organizations share the Co-operative Institute, which has a small budget and a mandate to promote co-operative education through the public education system, academic research, and the creation of new co-operatives.
The debate over public-sector restructuring in Canada and alternative service delivery is about many things: regaining control over budgets, improving service to citizens, and altering the balance in the responsibili¬ties between and across governments and with their citiz
Budget Committee - Бюджетный Комитет
budget authority - бюджетные полномочия
budget knife- бюджетное сокращение
balanced budget - сбалансированный бюджет
of a household, business, community, or governmentThis pattern may be epitomized by Acadian communities such as Evangeline, PEI, which has produced a closely integrated set of co-operative enterprises as a backbone for the local economy.It is the existence of these multisectoral networks and organizations that makes co-operatives a relatively cohesive and coordinated grouping, indeed makes them the best-organized component of the social economy.It is not rhetorical if one considers that a respected recent body of economic literature argues that, in the globalization epoch, only capitalistic firms are compatible with a market economy.Like other businesses, it operates in a market economy, combining factors of production to produce competitive goods and services.Organizations, actors and go
Показать всеvernment structures actively involved in the promising areas for development (i.e., the social economy and the new economy) come to mind.command economydistributional economysocial economy market economy- административно-командная экономика- эффект масштаба в распределении- cоциальная экономика- рыночная экономикаEmployeeEmployee (n)- a person who is hired to work for another or for a business, firm, etc.This suggests that unions may not be the most formidable barrier in restructuring government but rather that the crucial issues revolve around how leaders engage and involve employees.I have argued that they take seriously central ASD themes such as engaging employees and clients and improving accountability.As the Public Service Alliance of Canada has noted, how smoothly these transfers proceed relates to how early unions are engaged in the planning process and whether management proceeded with good faith in informing and working with employees.Some co-operative distribute surpluses to their users or employees, while others do not do so.Thus, not only should co-operative models be explored on their own terms but they can be used to develop more realistic expectations for other ASD alternatives with respect to engaging and mobilizing employees and communities.long-term employeeemployee insuranceemployee referralemployee retentionhourly employee- работник-старожил- страхование работников- рекомендация работников- удержание персонала- работник на почасовой оплатеFinanceFinance (n)- the system of money, credit, etc., esp with respect to government revenues and expenditures - funds or the provision of funds - (plural) funds; financial conditionМultigovernment delivery, where the government maintains responsibility for policy and standards but cannot finance or operate the program on its own.After taking over the job of consumer education and sensitization from the consumer cooperatives, the state then gradually stepped back from this role in response to deteriorating public finances.It comprises representatives from the three main co-operative organizations and various departments (labour, finance, agriculture and public works).Saskatchewan's minister of finance Janice McKinnon noted in this regard that "the spirit of co-operation has long been a defining feature of a strong and growing Saskatchewan."government financefinance committeehigh financepublic finance- государственные средства- финансовый комитет- крупные финансовые операции- государственный бюджетFundFund (n)- a reserve of money, etc., set aside for a certain purposeThe cooperators established the Co-operative Development and CED funds, which have contributed $2 million across Canada over the last few years support local employment.Members the group include VanCity Capital Corporation and VanCity Community Foundation, Vancouver Foundation, The Real Estate Foundation, and The Co-operators' CED Fund.Funding support may also be available on a project basis, through the Co-operators Community Economic Development Fund.Fighting fundInternational Monetary Fundto make a draft on a fundoffshore fundrelief fundsinking fundwages fund- избирательный фонд- Международный валютный фонд- снять какую-либо сумму со счета- оффшорная компания- фонд помощи- амортизационный фонд- фонд заработной платыFor-profitFor-profit (adj)describing an entity that is formed and operated with the intention of earning a profit.The ASD debate usually proceeds at the level of the implications for the quality of particular programs and the arrangements for transferring or sharing responsibilities with more autonomous agencies, other governments, or the non-profit or for-profit sector.A premise underlying the enthusiasm of supporters for smaller government, or for more radical public-sector reforms, is that citizens and communities, and non-profit and for-profit organizations, can easily absorb more responsibility for providing public goods.The ASD debate in Canada is not just about cutting costs and improving efficiency, nor is it exclusively about privatizing government operations to for-profit entities.Alternative service delivery can include the range of options for delivering public services that lie between government bureaus and for-profit firms. for-profit organization - коммерческая организацияfor-profit sector –коммерческий секторGoodsGoods (n)physical things that are produced to be sold, inducing things that are manufactured or prepared and raw materials.Like other businesses, it operates in a market economy, combining factors of production to produce competitive goods and services.The primary functions of the economic system (from resource allocation to the distribution of goods and services) are typically understood as occurring within two traditional sectors, the state and the private market.In the context of the production and delivery of public goods, the reciprocity principle as practised by co-operative organizations has a measurable effect on both the quality and efficiency of the goods and services provided.This is so in two important areas: first, in the quality of what are called "relational goods" - those goods, such as care-giving, that are services to persons and that are characterized by the exchange of human relations.choice of goods – ассортимент товаровfabricated goods – заказные товары, товары по индивидуальным заказамto deliver goods - доставлять товарыmanufactured goods - промышленные товары consumer goods - товары широкого потребления GovernanceGovernance (n)the activity of controlling a company an organization or a country. Such changes in governance and public administration have been proceeding in many countries around the world.However, the role of the broader public, and, more explicitly, of civil society and the social economy, has figured far less prominently in the proposed alternatives to current models of governance.I have also argued that they constitute one means for rebuilding trust in public services and governance and in expanding the capacities of civil society.They must diffuse promising practices, warn of less promising approaches, and convey more positive renderings of how governance is changing, if only to realize our capacity for change.In addition, the democratic governance of co-operatives provides a key mechanism for conveying the interests of users and members. good governance - порядок во властиorgan of governance – орган управленияprocess of governance – процесс управленияgovernance guidelines – принципы управленияIncomeIncome (n)financial gain during a specified periodIn housing co-operatives low-income people have an opportunity to develop collective ownership of their housing.Housing co-operatives mix people of different income levels, potentially promoting social solidarity.One of these requirements was that the co-ops maintain a specified proportion of their membership from low-income earners, whose rental payments would be subsidized. income levels – уровень доходаmonthly income — месячный заработокnet income — чистый доходtaxable income — доход, облагаемый налогомunearned income — нетрудовой доходweekly income — недельный доходper capita income — на душу населенияIndustryIndustry (n)- kill or cleverness- the application of this- earnest, steady effort; constant diligence in or application to work- systematic work; habitual employmeany particular branch of productive, esp. manufacturingany - large-scale business activity- manufacturing productive enterprises collectivelyA large number of these co-operatives are worker co-ops that provide new avenues of employment for displaced resource industry workers.For example, discussions are currently under way about the possibility of co-operative associations in the forest industry, the agriculture/food sector, and the health and social-services fields.The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries has strong connections with the co-operative sector through industry co-operative associations.The co-operative sector has suggested to the private insurance industry that community-based co-operatives be established to assist in conversion.metal-based manufactured industry tool-and-die industrya captain of industry- металлоперерабатыва-ющая промышленность- инструментальная промышленность- промышленный магнатInfrastructureInfrastructure (n)- the basic structure of an organization, system, etc - the stock of fixed capital equipment in a country, including factories, roads, schools, etc., considered as a determinant of economic growth The success of the co-op sector is largely attributable to the associational infrastructure that links co-operatives through sectoral, provincial and national organizations.It also included massive expansion of social institutions (schools, universities, hospitals) and physical infrastructure (roads, airports) to respond to the postwar baby boom and the movement to the suburbs.This much-needed financial infrastructure was developed in the aftermath of the fall of Communism, with the help of Canadian co-operatives, which have helped set up more than fifty new credit unions.Both approaches are typically necessary, and both require core infrastructures of organizational resources to be effective.information infrastructuremarket infrastructureproduct infrastructureindustry infrastructure- информационная инфраструктура- инфраструктура рынка- продуктовая инфраструктура- сеть обслуживания промышленностиInnovationInnovation (n)- something newly introduced, such as a new method or device - the act of innovatinThis suggests the possibility of considerable innovation as co-operatives strive to adapt and meet local needs. Do co-operatives, in fact, lead to more local innovation, particularly when it comes to service? When innovation does occur, how is knowledge of the innovation diffused to other organizations?The debate is also about finding better ways to serve citizens and communities by increasing responsiveness, improving accountability and fostering innovation.manufacturing innovation- новый метод производстваinnovation proposal - рациональное предложениеtechnologic innovation - новые технологииproduct innovation - товарная инновацияinnovation management - управление инновациямиInsuranceInsurance (n)- the act, system, or business of providing financial protection for property, life, health, etc., against specified contingencies, such as death, loss, or damage, and involving payment of regular premiums in return for a policy guaranteeing such protection - the state of having such protectionCo-operators insurance group has contributed one million dollars over two years to a Co-op and Community Economic Development Fund, whose purpose is to finance the emergence of new projects and new enterprises.One has to conclude that health insurance is an example of a function that can be performed by co-ops instead of by the state.Insurance mutuals, with significant medico-social activities.Co-operatives have set up an intersectoral training insurance fund to finance certain specific training programs. automobile insurance – страхование автомобилейunemployment insurance – страхование по безработице compulsory insurance – обязательное страхованиеliability insurance – страхование ответственностиIntegrationIntegration (n) - сombining two or more companies under the overall guidance to the joint activity- сombining different components into a single systemMarketing co-operatives invested heavily in the development of handling and processing systems: vertical integration, in other words.They have not themselves pursued vertical integration.There are many ways by which the organization of new co-operatives can be assisted and their mutually beneficial integration with other cooperatives promoted. economic integration — экономическая интеграцияracial integration — расовая интеграцияclose integration эк. — тесная интеграцияvertical integration – вертикальная интеграцияInvestmentInvestment (n)- the amount by which the stock of capital (plant, machinery, materials, etc.) in an enterprise or economy changes- the act of investing money - the amount invested - an enterprise, asset, etc.,The revised law opened up the membership to member-investors whose objective is to get a return on their investment.For-profit concerns and co-operatives are similar in that they seek to maximize returns on investments.However, agricultural, craft, shipping and transportation co-operatives are, either in whole or in part, liable to pay income tax when they issue co-operative investment certificates or when they obtain outside capital.The rate of dividend associated with this investment may be two percentage points higher than the rate given regular user-members.Investments made in co-operatives by their members also enjoy tax concessions.lucrative / profitable investment — прибыльное инвестированиеsolid / sound investment — крупные инвестицииheavy investments — значительные вкладыlong-term investments — долгосрочные инвестицииoverseas investments — иностранные инвестицииfollow of investment – поток инвестицийinvestment fund – инвестиционный фондLoanLoan (n)- the act of lending the loan of a car - property lent, esp money lent at interest for a period of time Through contractual arrangements with Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. housing co-operatives were guaranteed loans in exchange for an undertaking on their part to observe various guidelines.Its role is to make risk capital available to social economy businesses (subscribing equity shares, capital or medium-term loans).These non-voting shares yield a variable return that may not exceed the return on loans made by members to the co-operative.It takes the form of a subsidy worth as much as sixty per cent of the equity in the new co-operative, in addition to a loan representing a maximum of seventy-five per cent of the operating capital required in the first year of the co-operative's existence.domestic loanamortizing loancollateral loancall loanlong sighted loan- внутренний заем- амортизационный кредит- ссуда под залог- кредит до востребования- долгосрочный кредитManagementManagement (n)the act of running and controlling a business or similar organization .The co-op solution has often been seen by politicians and officials alike as a way of improving management and therefore service quality rather than simply as a way of cutting costs.Such changes in governance and public administration have been proceeding in many countries around the world, and the phrase "the new public management" has been utilized to embrace the range of these wide-ranging themes.State marketing, on the other hand, offers advantages of universal control of the commodity, elimination of "free rider" problems, and effective management of a system that would otherwise pit one farmer against another.Related to this point, the low-income members, like the others, assume responsibility for management and maintenance.An effective, complementary partnership between directors and management is essential. expert maintenance management - управление техническим обслуживанием с помощью экспертной системыsupplier relationship management - управление отношениями с поставщиками; управление поставками, asset management – управление активами management education — образование в области управления; обучение специалистов по управлениюstrategic management – стратегическое управлениеnetwork management – сетевое управлениеMarketMarket (n)- an event or occasion, usually held at regular intervals, at which people meet for the purpose of buying and selling merchandise - a place, such as an open space in a town, at which a market is held - a shop that sells a particular merchandise an antique market - the trading or selling opportunities provided by a particular group of people - demand for a particular product or commodityA co-operative is a means for such groups to exert a countervailing power and so mitigate or eliminate a market imperfection.Is this due to insufficient awareness on the part of governments, or, conversely, does the co-operative movement have sufficient capacity to market such ideas?A crucial difference between cooperatives and many non-profit entities is that co-operatives tend to have a market orientation.In many quarters, such initiatives will be interpreted as little more than another concerted effort to permanently reduce the size and influence of the state and to govern society by means of the market paradigm.stock markettalk the market downfinancial marketjumpy marketswing the market- фондовая биржа- охладить рынок- финансовый рынок- неустойчивый рынок- изменить конъюнктуру рынкаMarketingMarketing (n)- the provision of goods or services to meet customer or consumer needsAgricultural marketing is another field that has, in Canada, been pioneered by co-operatives.In the period between the world wars, marketing co-operatives and commodity pools emerged for chief agricultural commodities in virtually every region of Canada.While the state took over the function of collective marketing, co-operatives remain, working with the state system.buzz marketing- сарафанный маркетингback end marketing- интенсивный маркетингmarketing emphasis - маркетинговая специализацияmarketing level - маркетинговый уровеньNon-profit Non-profit (adj)that does not have the aim of making a profit.In addition, the "one member, one vote" formula provides a direct accountability to users of co-operatives that is lacking in traditional non-profit organizations.The ASD debate usually proceeds at the level of the implications for the quality of particular programs and the arrangements for transferring or sharing responsibilities with more autonomous agencies, other governments, or the non-profit or for-profit sector.Non-profit and for-profit organizations, can easily absorb more responsibility for providing public and quasi-public goods.This means applying their unique strengths to new markets and a changing social economy, particularly as the ASD debate directs attention to the importance of civil society and the voluntary and non-profit sectors.non-profit organization – некоммерческая организацияnon-profit corporation – некоммерческая корпорацияnon-profit sector –некоммерческий секторOrganizationOrganization (n) a business enterpriseCo-operatives, depending on the sector, have much in common with non-profit and voluntary organizations.Like non-profit organizations, co-operatives may run surpluses, but these must be reinvested back into the organization and its programs.The International Co-operative Alliance estimates that there are over 750 million people in the world who are members of co-operative organizations.An alternative typology is provided by management theorist Henry Mintzberg, who outlined four different types of organizations.The state has developed programs and policies that build on services developed by organizations like co-operatives. 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