TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT
WAYS OF LESSENING ITS RATES IN OUR COUNTRY.
MERITOCRACY AND ERGONARCHY. THEIR CONNECTION WITH TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CONSUMER SOCIETY.
THE PROBLEM OF WORKAHOLISM, ONE OF THE URGENT PROBLEMS OF YOUNG GENERATION TODAY.
ADDICTION OF YOUNG PEOPLE TO UNHEALTHY HABITS. SOLUTION TO THIS PROBLEM.
GROWTH OF URBANIZATION.
LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL PEOPLE RESOLVING ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THEIR NEIGHBORHOODS.
THE GREATEST HAZARDS OF THE 21ST CENTURY
1.Кэмпбелл Р. Макконнелл, Стэнли Л. Брю, ""Экономикс"", Москва, 1995;
2.Fay Weldon, The rise of the ergonarchy - The New Statesman Essay, April 2000;
3.Nils Bejerot, Theories of Drug abuse, Selected contemporary perspectives, page 246-255, NIDA, 1980;
The problem of workaholism, one of the urgent problems of young generation today
It turned out that one of the major problems of young generation today is workaholism. Strangely, a great number of young men have more appetite for employment than for leisure. However, the reason of such workaholism isn’t a desire of becoming an authority in some field. In our consumer society the most frequent reason given for attending college had changed to making a lot of money in future. Today’s society expect from young men to become a rich consumer, an image advertised by mass media, books, films. Where once people worked in order to make things, and thus keep warm and fed, now they work in order to earn, and earn in order to spend in order to work.
However, it is easy to realize, that such situati
Показать всеon affects greatly to the whole society. More and more young people reaching their 30s, find themselves without permanent partners, because it takes too many energy to keep them. The old social structures dissolve: marriage is a serial event, and families that contain stepchildren will soon outstrip those that don't. Single-person households begin to be the norm. More and more women choose not to have children. People are suffering from a permanent stress because of their addiction to work. And consequently life expectancy decreased greatly (2). The government and the society should take urgent measures to prevent the prevalence of such work addiction. And do it before the ergonarchy wins.
Addiction of young people to unhealthy habits. Solution to this problem
Addiction of young people to unhealthy habits is a very complicated problem, because the solution of it is strongly connected with modern lifestyle, culture and frame of the society. For instance, the image of the smoker can vary considerably, but is very often associated with individuality and aloofness. Smoking of both tobacco and cannabis can be a social activity which serves as a part of the cultural rituals of many and diverse social and ethnic groups. Offering and sharing of an alcohol is often an important rite of initiation or simply a good excuse to start a conversation with strangers in bars, night clubs etc. For adolescents, smoking and even drug consumption can function as a first step out of childhood or as an act of rebellion against the adult world.
Accordin to Nils Bejerot, Swedish psychiatrist (3), there are five factors the presence of which greatly contributes to the addiction of person to an unhealthy habits. These are availability of the addiction substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs), money to acquire and time to use the substance, example of use of the substance in the immediate environment and a permissive ideology in relation to the use of the substance.
Solution of this problem is a task for the society as a whole. It is necessary to change the perception of such habits as something stylish and “cool”. In another words, the society must make it very uncomfortable to smoke or to abuse drugs.
Growth of urbanization
Urbanization is the physical growth of rural or natural land into urban areas as a result of population in-migration to an existing urban area. While the exact definition and population size of urbanized areas varies among different countries, urbanization is attributed to growth of cities. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration.
Over the last few years urbanization of rural areas has increased. The growth of urbanization is connected with the change from a pre-industrial society to an industrial one. It is at this time that many new commercial enterprises are made possible, thus creating new jobs in cities. It is also a result of industrialization that farms become more mechanized, putting many labourers out of work. That is why it is easy to see why someone living on a farm might wish to take their chance moving to the city and trying to make enough money to send back home to their struggling family.
Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend, but in fact, it occurs naturally from individual and corporate efforts to reduce time and expense in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. There are better basic services in cities as well as other specialist services that aren't found in rural areas. There are more job opportunities and a greater variety of jobs. Health is another major factor. People are often forced to move to cities where there are doctors and hospitals. Other factors include a greater variety of entertainment (restaurants, movie theaters, theme parks, etc) and a better quality of education, namely universities.
Local communities and local people resolving ecological problems of their neighborhoods
Environmental pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms. Pollution is one of the major ecological problems. However, each of us can greatly contribute to decrease the pollution of the area we are living in.
On the 21st of June this year within the International Day of Reservoir Purification local government together with WWF, International Diving Association and a great number of volunteers have cleared the Gorsky quarry from various waste products and garbage. Comparing with last such action the number of gotten out tire-covers increased from forty eight to a five hundred items. However, the most significant “catch” was an automobile Moscvich 408 (4).
“The Gorsky cleaning” was just first step in a number of actions in order to clean ponds and lakes within the city borders and provide the rest area near water for citizens. It was just a right example how local community and local government can by their own strength contribute to the resolving of ecological problems.
The greatest hazards of the 21st century
One of the greatest hazards of the 21st century is overpopulation. There are now about five and a half billion people in the world. There will probably be six billion by the end of the 20th century and at least ten billion by the year 2050. Overall results of such extraordinary growth are very difficult to predict. However, it is clear that with the increasing population, all living things on this planet are threatened. As more space is needed for people there is less room for wildlife. Growing more crops and rearing more animals to satisfy the great demand for food will place a great strain on the world's soils. More forests will be chopped down to make way for housing and as a result wildlife will be threatened and many species will decline in numbers. Скрыть
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