Table of contents
The essence of globalization
Definition of globalization
The origin of globalization
Types of globalization
Driving Forces of globalization
Different approaches to globalization
Globalization as an attack on Democracy
The list of literature
Appendix № 2
1.Challenges and risks of globalization. Martin Wolf, Associate Editor and Chief Economics Commentator// Financial Times. March 24th 2007 year.
2.The Threat of Globalization by Edward S. Herman// New Politics, winter 1999 year. (Electronic version)
Improved environmental awareness and accountability has contributed to positive environmental outcomes by encouraging the use of more efficient, less-polluting technologies and facilitating economies' imports of renewable substitutes for use in place of scarce domestic natural resources.
The environment has been harmed as agricultural, forest, mining and fishing industries exploit inadequate environmental codes and corrupt behavior in developing countries. Agricultural seed companies are destroying the biodiversity of the planet, and depriving subsistence farmers of their livelihood.
Increasing interdependence and global institutions like WTO and World Bank, that manage the settlement of government-to-government disputes, have enabled international political an
Показать всеd economic tensions to be resolved on a «rules based» approach, rather than which country has the greatest economic or political power. Importantly it has bolstered peace as countries are unlikely to enter conflict with trading partners and poverty reduction helps reduce the breeding ground for terrorism.
The major economic powers have a major influence in the institutions of globalization, like the WTO, and this can work against the interests of the developing world. The level of agricultural protection by rich countries has also been estimated to be around five times what they provide in aid to poor countries
Improved technology has dramatically reduced costs and prices changing the way the world communicates, learns, does business and treats illnesses. Between 1990 and 1999, adult illiteracy rates in developing countries fell from 35 per cent to 29 per cent.
Trade liberalisation and technological improvements change the economy of a country, destroying traditional agricultural communities and allowing cheap imports of manufactured goods. This can lead to unemployment if not carefully managed, as work in the traditional sectors of the economy becomes scarce and people may not have the appropriate skills for the jobs which may be created.
Modern communications and the global spread of information have contributed to the toppling of undemocratic regimes and a growth in liberal democracies around the world.
Modern communications have spread an awareness of the differences between countries, and increased the demand for migration to richer countries. Richer countries have tightened the barriers against migrant workers, xenophobic fears have increased and people smugglers have exploited vulnerable people.
The voluntary adoption by global companies of workplace standards for their internationalised production facilities in developing countries has made an important contribution to respect for international labour standards. Wages paid by multinationals in middle- and low-income countries are on average 1.8 to 2.0 times the average wages in those countries.
Globalised competition can force a 'race to the bottom' in wage rates and labour standards. It can also foster a 'brain drain' of skilled workers, where highly educated and qualified professionals, such as doctors, engineers and IT specialists, migrate to developed countries to benefit from the higher wages and greater career and lifestyle prospects. This creates severe skilled labour shortages in developing countries.
International migration has led to greater recognition of diversity and respect for cultural identities which is improving democracy and access to human rights.
Indigenous and national culture and languages can be eroded by the modern globalised culture.
Source: AusAID, 2004, (http://www.ausaid.gov.au/)
Source: The World Bank, 2004, (http://www.worldbank.org/)
United Nations Development Programme, 2004 (http://www.undp.org/)
Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways such as:
Industrial (alias trans nationalization) - emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of foreign products for consumers and companies;
Financial - emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external financing for corporate, national and subnational borrowers ; Скрыть
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