Социо-лингвистический аспект современного американского общества
Social problems of the USA and their solutions
CHAPTER 1. ESTIMATION OF THE CURRENT SOCIAL PROBLEMS
1.2.Language barrier as a problem of social integration in the multinational community
CHAPTER 2 DISCRIMINATION AND ADDICTION
2.1 Race discrimination
2.4Drug, alcohol and tobacco addiction
The paper consists of the introduction, two parts – theoretical and practical, conclusion and bibliography.
Chapter 1 “Estimation of the current social problems” reviews such problems as unemployment, language barrier as a problem of social integration in the multinational community and property status
Chapter 2 “Discrimination and addiction” deals with race and gender discrimination, criminality and addictions: drug, alcohol and tobacco addiction.
In each of the chapters to follow, the discussion of a given problem is concluded by a special section on social policy. After a sketch of the major strategies for solution of the problem, each alternative policy is analyzed in terms of its ability to reduce human suffering in the real social world. A final policy segment engages in evaluati
Показать всеng the evidence about the past, present, and future effectiveness of the alternative social programs.
The present graduation paper deals with the social problems of the USA and the ways American society solves them.
The interrelationship of problem diagnoses and prescriptions brings to mind a specific trend in American social policy. In the place of simplistic victim-blaming theories (like that of the disreputable poor), there is a widespread tendency to view problem people as not responsible for their personal failings. If, for instance, alcoholics, rapists, and child abusers are troubled by something that can be called illness, the proper policy is one that gives them personal therapy.
The well-known individualism of American culture naturally leads us to see problems as inside individuals. But society, actually, does not seem to be a mere sum of every citizen’s problems – it is much more complex, so the whole society’s problems should be resolved nationally. Even with the limits imposed by the subjective dimension, the case made here for scientific sociology might make you wonder why you live in a society in which social problems are necessary. The whole nation is all part of the reason. The interrelationship of individuals and institutions is an intricate one, presenting imposing barriers to both understanding and change.
Such social problems as high unemployment rates, priority of English over other languages, striking difference in property and housing, race and gender discrimination, growth of criminality and drug addiction seem to us the most essential, as they show that American society is not fair in its approach to wealth distribution, outline the growing dissatisfaction with the traditional American system of values, lack of opportunity for lots of the residents to carry out their intentions, great number of citizens’ incapability of providing themselves and their family with the most essential democratic society rights such as free competition on the job market, lack of any national, cultural and linguistic bias resulting in discrimination of many sorts.
This point of view of ours is shared by a great number of sociologists, whose works served us as a methodological base of our paper, such as B.P. Bowser, R.G. Hunt, J. Crone, B.J. Jones, B.J. Gallagher, J.A. McFalls, A. Leon-Guerrero, E.W. Stewart, S. Thiederman and others.
The above mentioned social problems, which are the subject of the given research, have both individual and social aspects. At each of these levels, problems tend to overlap. Individuals addicted to one drug are likely to be abusing several other substances as well; the alcoholic and the junkie are often the same person. At the social level, neighborhoods with high rates of street crime also tend to have concentrations of poverty and broken homes. The point is that social problems are interrelated, and the implications of this point for policy are crucial.
Actuality of the research is resulted from a big number of failures when trying to overcome this or that social problem. If social problems are indeed linked, effects exerted on one can reverberate through the others as well. Ironically, this linkage may mean that solving problem A actually worsens problem B. Finding the cure for cancer would remove an enormous source of objective suffering, but would exacerbate the problem of caring for the elderly; finding a practical way to harness solar power could solve the energy problem, thus allowing industry to produce at full capacity and use up more natural resources. The discussion of value trade-offs showed that the creation of a given policy implies social sacrifices.
Numerous dilemmas of social policy stress the need for enlightened action, not the futility of trying. Such barriers have been overcome in a number of successful collaborations of sociologists with policymakers. Even more exciting, though, is the potential for success. In its development as a science, sociology is becoming better and better equipped to answer the applied questions posed by social problems. Policymakers are increasingly disposed to listen to and implement the comments of the community.
Despite collective efforts to solve them, social problems are a continuing reality of United States society. The barriers to simple solutions (value trade-offs, problem linkages, and implementation issues) have been revealed by sociological analysis. That revelation may improve the design of social policies by minimizing their collision with such barriers.
The research is aimed at discovering causes and reasons of the American society inability to resolve its most essential social problems.
In connection with declared aim we tried to decide some questions including:
Characterizing the difference in social being and housing, taking into account unemployment and language barriers as the key factors encouraging problems growth in multinational country; Скрыть
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