Chapter 1. Description of the object
1.1. History of the object
1.2. Technical conditions of the object
1.3. Tourist interest today
Chapter 2. Ways of improvement
2.1. Ways of tourist interest attraction
2.2. Tour “Makary monastery”
"1.Агафонов С.Л. Горький. Балахна. Макарьев. - М., 1987. С.275-302.
2.Агафонов С.Л. Макарьев на Волге //Памятники Отечества. - М., 1989. С.136-146.
3.Галай Ю.Г. Макарьевский монастырь в первое послевоенное десятилетие. (К истории охраны и реставрации) //Памятники истории и архитектуры Европейской России. (Исследование, реставрация, охрана). - Н.Новгород, 1995. С.216-224.
4.Макарий, архимандрит. Памятники церковных древностей. - Н.Новгород, 1999. С.323.
5.Татаринов Е. Макарьевский Желтоводский монастырь //Зодчий. 1902. №29. С.327-330; №52. С.599-604.
6.Филатов Н.Ф. Города и посады Нижегородского Поволжья в XVII веке. - Горький, 1989. С.132-159.
7.Шаболдин Я.Л. Архитектура Спасо-Преображенского собора XVII века в Нижегородском кремле //Нижегородский кремль. К 500-летию памятника ар
Показать всехитектуры XVI века: Материалы второй областной научно-практической конференции 5-6 декабря 2001 года. - Н.Новгород, 2002. С.119-137.
8.Шумилкин С.М. Нижегородская ярмарка. - Н.Новгород, 1996. С.25-54. Скрыть
In 1892 a wooden chapel was built over the source of spring water which was used on special days when religious processions made their way there and priests hallowed the water.
A bell of 210 poods (3360 kg) became soon the decoration of the belfry in the monastery thanks to charitable contributions as well as the 111 meters long stony wall was built around the monastery, because there was a necessity to defend it from landslides.
In 1904 37 people lived in Makary monastery but a steady life of these people changed after the overthrow of the tsar and his murder. After the revolution orthodox monasteries were subjected to robbery, defilation and destruction. New people were not in need neither of God, nor of conscience. On September, 1918, Red-Army soldiers robbed Makary hermitage.
Показать все soviet period (1936 - 1986) a sanatorium for children who had a tuberculosis was arranged in the buildings of the monastery. During the Great Patriotic War an army hospital was placed here.
Towards the end of the 20th century the remains of Makary monastery were returned to the Church but there were only walls preserved as all the frames from windows, floors and roofs had been destroyed by the fire in 1989 or had been taken away by raiders.
Only on the 1st of May in 1996, as the history tells, the service in the ancient church of Ascension was resumed. Then in 2001 by the efforts of L.V. Anisimov a wooden chapel in honor of venerable Makary was built near the mountain under the monastery. In 2003 on the means of A.G. Pilishkin and the firm “Lit art” 10 bells were casted in Voronezh.
To prove the historical and cultural significance of the object described, there are some interesting facts to take into consideration:
Being persuaded exactly by st.Makary, Ivan IV agreed to take tzar title in 1547;
It was Makary who was the first to canonize Russian saints in order to systemize local cults;
Makary contributed the establishment of the first Russian print shop;
Monastery is historically connected with the major Russian trade fair – Makary fair.
Nowadays a wonderful view of Makary monastery reminds earthly wanderers looking at it about an imperishable beauty of the heavenly town. In spite of the cramped doors and narrow way that lead to life, not only in ancient times but in the 21st century there are people who desire to devote all there time and all forces of their soul and body to become pious.
1.2. Technical conditions of the object
Taking into account the significance of Makary monastery as of the historical and cultural object, we’ll give a brief technical characteristic of it as it is important for the development of tourism.
The combination of the vast river area, picturesque nature of the opposite to the monastery river bank with the architectural mastership which represents the monastery is considered to be a unique territorial unity.
Makary monastery is situated 88 km far from Nizhniy Novgorod down the river Volga on its left bank near the confluence of the Volga and the Kerzhents. The main entrance to the monastery is from its south part near the river through holy gates of Michael Archangel’s church. There is Makrievo township to the north west from the monastery.
Makary monastery is connected with the region center Liskovo by ferry, with the city of Novgorod through the river transport line and road.
Historically the monastery has aquired its city landmark status aspreviously there was a great fair near the monastery which contributed the development of a settlement (sloboda), further transformed into uyezd town. But as the key landmark object the monastery functioned while Makary fair working (the period from XVII-up to the XIX centuries). Thus, the analysis of the uyezd town plan show that all the town districts are to be geometrically right and to form a net of the streets oriented to the monastery and the fair. When the fair complex been moved to the north-west of the monastery the two objects were corresponding to each other. The history tells that after the fire on the fair in 1816 and transfer of the fair to Novgorod, the monastery became a kind of a solitary landmark object as the key role was given to the settlement’s Kazan church.
Nowadays the monastery has acquired the significance of a cultural and natural heritage as the integral ties between picturesque setting and the very architecture of the monastery make this object be one of the brightest examples of so called cultural landscape of Nizhniy Novgorod oblast.
Any cultural landscape has got unique structure which is based on the natural, landmark and cultural aspects. Among the states aspects the natural one is the key factor because the peculiarities of the landscape have determined the development of the territory planning. The historical documents prove that the previous, or original landscape of the territory was a bit different. In XVIII-XIX centuries the main riverbed of the Volga was changing and that led to the flooding of the original monastery territory which appeared after such changes right on the bank of the river. The situation eve was getting worse due to the increase of the water level in the Cheboksarskaya GES when a concrete fortification was constructed and there was an embankment made alongside the monastery walls.
Nowadays the monastery which is almost circled with the Volga river together with a chain of hills on the right bank, takes the central place on the vast territory, getting a peculiar monumentality in the frame of the contrast with the flat bank and surface of the river. The compositional axe on the given territory is the riverbed of the Voga: buildings of the monastery are exposed to the river being fused with the nature in one unique volume composition. Thus, the complex of Makary monastery today is a sample of Russian monastery architecture which depicts the peculiarities of such kind of constructions in a full scale.
The landscape setting of the monastery is rather picturesque and variable in colors and textures: a wide water space represented by the river surface, is harmonically combined with a steep slope of the right bank covered with trees as well as a plain bank correlates with the beauty of the surrounding meadow. The architectural look of the monastery constructions is beneficially shadowed with the natural setting as well as the smoothness of the river banks contrasts with the severe look of the monastery and of the central temple walls.
The landmark aspect of the cultural landscape is represented by the monastery constructions which are characterized by the unity and wholeness. A square like territory of the monastery complex is surrounded by the stone wall decorated with the corner round towers and square central pryasles. From the river side there is an additional concrete construction and the symmetrical river façade with the center in the Holy gates of Michael Archangel church and adjoining cottages for monks. If to look at the monastery from the river side the given church seems to be a part of the main Troitskiy temple as an additional decoration in the composition. From the north there is Makary church near the temple which is built in the classical style. From the east of the temple there ire a two-storied building of the refectory and Uspenskaya church with the bell tower.
Nowadays there are still original monks’ cells, hospital building and Grigory Pelshemsky church which is in a square tower between the Holy gates and the west corner tower. Each monastery construction is harmonically embodied in the space of the surrounding nature as well as the features of the architectural complex suit the peculiarities of the landscape. Скрыть
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