Достоинства и недостатки футбольного закона Босман
Table of contents
1. The Bosman case and the Bosman ruling
2. Pros and cons of the Bosman ruling
1.Kesenne S. The Peculiar International Economics of Professional Football in Europe // Scottish Journal of Political Economy 2007, 388-399
2.Binder J. The Effects of the Bosman Ruling on National and Club Teams in Europe. / University of Illinois (Chicago), 2009
3.Blanpain R., Inston R. The Bosman Case. / Sweet & Maxwell: London, 1996
4.McArdle D. From Boot Money to Bosman: Football Society and the Law. / Cavendish: London, 2000
5.Williams J. A game for rough girls?: a history of women's football in Britain. / Routledge: London, 2003
Football culture refers to the cultural aspects surrounding the game of association football. In many countries, football has ingrained itself into the national culture, and parts of life may revolve around it. Many countries have daily football newspapers, as well as football magazines. Football players, especially in the top levels of the game, have become role models for people. The game has become glamourised, with many children practicing the game and aspiring to the wealth shown off by the top footballers.
However, football in its various forms is quite clearly constructed to protect male dominance. Although women's football has been played for a long time, it was usually associated only with charity games and physical exercise. The women's football had its first golden age in the
Показать всеUK in early 1920s when some matches achieved over 50,000 spectators. However in 5 December 1921 England's Football Association voted to ban the game from grounds used by its member clubs. That ban was cancelled only in July 1971. Thus, before the 1970s, association football was mostly seen as a men's game. Women's football faced many struggles throughout its fight for right. The growth in women's football has seen major competitions being launched at both national and international level.
First unofficial women's European tournaments for national teams were held in Italy in 1969 and 1979 and won by Italian and Denmark teams. However there was no formal international tournament until 1982 when the first UEFA European Competition For Representative Women's Teams was launched. The 1984 Finals was won by Swedish team. This competition name was succeeded by the UEFA Women's Championship and today, is commonly referred to as the Women's Euro.
First official Women's World Cup was established by FIFA only in 1991. However in 1970s and 1980s several unofficial world tournaments already took place. The first Women's World Cup was held in the People's Republic of China in November 1991, and was won by the USA. Nowadays women’s football has more strong positions; in 2010 FIFA announces the first edition of the FIFA Women's Club World Cup. There is still no official date for the tournament, but is expected to happen in April or May. Скрыть
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