1.The New Colonialists: China’s Hunger for Natural Resources is Causing More Problems at Home than Abroad // The Economist. 2008. March 15. P. 13; A Ravenous Dragon: A Special Report on China’s Quest for Resources // The Economist. 2008. March 15.
2.Broadman H.G. Africa’s Silk Road: China and India’s New Economic Frontier. The World Bank, 2006.
3.Upcoming Summit Highlights Africa’s Importance to China. The Power and Interest News Report. 2006. Nov. 3 (http://www.pinr.com/report. php?ac=view_report&report_id=578&language_id=1).
4.China’s Worldwide Quest for Energy Security. International Energy Agency, 2000;
5.Downs E S. China’s Quest for Energy Security. RAND Corporation, 2000. Taylor I. The ‘All-weather Friend’? Sino-African Interaction in the Twenty-first Century // Afr
Показать всеica in International Politics: External Involvement on the Continent / Y. Taylor, P. Williams (eds.). Routledge, 2004. P. 92.
6.Downs E.S. The Fact and Fiction of Sino-African Energy Relations // China Security. 2007. Vol. 3. No Summer.
7.China’s New Role in Africa and the South: A Search for a New Perspective / D.-G.
8.Guerrero, F. Manji (eds). Fahamu and Focus on the Global South, 2008. Westad O.A. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. N.Y.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007. P. 161—165.
9.Kurlantzick J. Charm Offensive: How China’s Soft Power Is Transforming the World. Yale Univ. Press, 2007.
10.Emerging Chinese Communities in Africa //The China Monitor. 2008. Iss. 26. Feb. Centre for Chinese Studies, University of Stellenbosch, 2008. Africa in China’s Global Strategy / M. Kitissou (ed.). L.: Adonis & Abbey Publishers, 2007. P. 23—24.
11.Alden C. China in Africa. Zed Books, 2007.
12.China Returns to Africa: A Superpower and a Continent Embrace / C. Alden, D. Large, R. De Oliveira (eds). C Hurst & Co, 2008. P. 135—136.
13.Mutual convenience: Congo Has Something China Wants, and Vice Versa // The Economist. 2008.
14.Kurlantzick J. Beijing’s Safari: China’s Move into Africa and Its Implications for Aid, Development, and Governance // Policy Outlook. 2006. No. 29. Nov. (http://www.carnegieendowment.org/ files/kurlantzick_outlook_africa2.pdf).
15.Shinn D.H. Africa, China, the United States, and Oil. Online Africa Policy Forum. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2007. May 8. (http://forums.csis.org/africa).
16.Michel S. When China Met Africa // Foreign Policy. 2008. May/June. Besada H., Wang Y., Whalley J. China’s Growing Economic Activity in Africa. NBER Working Paper No 14024. 2008. May (http://www.nber.org/papers/ w14024.pdf). Скрыть
About methodicalness China efforts to anchor on the African continent, said the official contacts at the highest frequency and the highest level between China and the countries of the region that was already noted above. Thus, in addition to the regular summits there is still created in 2000, the forum for China-Africa cooperation, which signed the Beijing Declaration on Sino-African cooperation, the program for China-Africa cooperation in economic and social spheres and the Addis Ababa Plan of action6.
Perhaps the main source of friction is the Chinese immigration in African countries. Major difference from other States, China took an earlier African resources is that it only imports en masse to their own citizens — not only professionals but also ordinary workers, construction workers,
Показать всеminers, even weavers. According to Chinese estimates, now in Africa 550000 Chinese citizens (for comparison: the French in Africa, about 100000, and the Americans 13 70000). Of course, Chinese investment projects are becoming centres of attraction for "irregular" immigrants (including illegal) — traders, restaurateurs, etc. Often Chinese immigrant traders and cheap Chinese products are displacing local artisans and shopkeepers, and on the domestic market of these countries. Policy-populists are already beginning to appear under the slogans of anti-Chinese bias in Zambia and Nigeria, anti-China speeches shopkeepers were seen in Senegal. Kurlančik expects that in future such tensions will only increase. "China cannot simply arrive and begin to extract minerals, and then go home and sell us industrial goods of own manufacture", said President Thabo Mbeki. Although the international media paid much attention, imposed trade sanctions against the United States and the EU of Chinese goods, almost two-thirds of antidumping investigations initiated against China in 2005 year, were initiated by developing countries. Kurlančik expects that they will be involved and the African States. Africans have a "learn to speak to China ' no '," writes Michelle: in 2006, Nigeria has cancelled the Chinese Petroleum concession worth 2 billion US dollars; another similar agreement with CNOOC have not materialized. In Guinea was severed contract with mining of bauxite, aluminum smelter and hydroelectric plant construction7.
An opposing view is presented in the works of Chinese authors, as well as many representatives of developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America8.
Global corporations are appearing in Africa tens of millions of new consumers — created by the economic growth of the middle class, it is worth noting that greater attention to Africa are showing not only the United States and China. Russia is also seeking to recover lost ground, and a number of Russian companies are already active in Africa. This is so far limited cooperation in commodity industries and mostly arms, but there are, it seems, and examples of Russian contractors in the construction of infrastructure facilities. A typical example of the acute interest of global players to Africa is an India: in early April 2008, New Delhi hosted the first India-Africa Forum. Motives and forms of Indian interest in Africa are not much different from the Chinese: one only Nigeria already provides 11 percent. India's oil needs. Delhi is also actively seeking to gain access to the oil areas in Angola. The Indian economy is growing rapidly, and, like China, India hopes that Africa will become a market for Indian exports: official New Delhi, predicts that the volume of trade between India and Africa will grow by 2012, up to 50 billion dollars. (trade between Africa and China last year amounted to 73 billion dollars). The Forum India has pledged to double (up to 5.4 billion US dollars) to increase the volume of loans granted to the countries of the continent, and to allocate financial assistance to the hundreds of millions of dollars. Like China, India is its competitors, promising the imperialists, African leaders "a true partnership" — not exploitation of the natural wealth of the continent's projects, and assist in the development of high-tech industries.
According to the President of Senegal, "Indian companies ... give us the technology and know-how. For the first time in Africa, a trade partner that builds a relationship with us, not on the basis of domination, charity or colonial attitudes. " In reality, however, signed in April by Indo-Africa trade agreement focuses on export to India of African cocoa, cotton, aluminum and copper ores, nuts, cane sugar, fish. And of course, according to Indian leaders, New Delhi is interested in supporting African countries it claims for permanent membership in the UN Security Council.
1. Building Bridges: China's Growing Role As Infrastructure Financier for Africa.2008
2. China: A New Partner for Africa's Development: Are We Heading for the End of European Privileges on the Black Continent? (Asian Political, Economic and Security Issues).2012
3. Editor Jennifer Cooke U.S. and Chinese Engagement in Africa: Prospects for Improving U.S.-China-Africa Cooperation. Center for Strategic & Intl Studies.2008
4. Jesse Russell Involvement of the People's Republic of China in Africa.2012 Скрыть
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