How did the chavacter of Nicholas II intensify cvisis of vussian autocvacy?
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This characteristic of the Queen confirmed monarchist, a member of the State Duma, V.V. Shulgin, and former chairman of the Council of Ministers V. Kokovtsev.Alexandra Feodorovna was able to completely subjugate her husband, who consulted with her on all issues before making a decision on them . In September 1916, he practically relegate her domestic policy, writing from the Stavka: "You've got to be my eyes and ears out there in the capital. On your duties is to maintain harmony and unity among the ministers. In such way you bring great benefit to me and our country ... You finally found a suitable case ". After this, the fatal role of Queen in the Government only increased.A special role in the life of the royal family played Grigory Rasputin - a controversial and enigmatic persona
Показать всеlity. For the first time talk about Rasputin appeared in the capital's high society in the years 1908-1909. Passed each other sensational news: in the royal family adviser appeared, he was from Siberia. The rumors were vague, no one really knew anything, but it nevertheless was of concern to officials. "The fatal chain, connected, as it turned out, forever, the last monarch, and Gregory was a disease of Tsarevich Alexei. At the end of 1907 Rasputin, being close to the sick heir, made the prayer, and the position of the baby improved. Excactly Grigoriy Rasputin managed to subdue completely the queen, and through her - the king. "Now rules not a king, but the rogue Rasputin - pointed in February 1912 Bogdanovich. - All respect to the king lost ". The same thought was expressed by, former foreign minister, S.D. Sazonov, in a conversation with M. Paleolog on3 August 1916: "The Emperor reigns, but the ruling Empress, inspired by Rasputin".The main criterion during considering candidates for a high office in the state, including ministers, were not their business skills, but their attitudes towards Rasputin. "The enemies of our friend - our enemies" - Alexandra wrote to her husband June 16, 1915 .But Rasputin was not just limited to intervention in domestic affairs. When Nicholas II became the supreme commander, he began to interfere in military matters - how to fight a war where and when to attack, etc.The period of Rasputin ruling was not accidental. It is the result of degeneration of both the Romanovs and autocracy in general. It is heavily undermined the authority of the king and his court, even among the most consistent of the monarchists and hasten the fall of the Romanovs, although it was not the main reason for the overthrow of the imperial power.In 1898 during the congress in Minsk RSDRP was established. On its second congress in the summer of 1903, it was divided into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. In June of 1902 non-socialist opposition groups began to publish in Stuttgart magazine "Liberation under the leadership of P.B. Struve. Its main requirement was a constitution.As chairman of the Council of Ministers from October 1905 to April 1906 Vitte, along with the king was responsible for starting the repression against participants in the revolution. But being a clever politician, he understood that it was impossible stop the revolutionary process with some of reprisals. It was necessary to make concessions, they must begin to reform. So there was a manifesto on October 17, wrested from the king literally at gunpoint - the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, threatened to put a bullet in his forehead, if he does not sign this manifesto.On October 17, 1905 Tsar Nicholas II issued a manifesto on the convening of the first legislature of the Duma. This was a concession to an autocratic king, who sought for nearly 100 years. Ministers were still appointed by the king, the Duma could not demand the resignation of government, ministers were not accountable to the Duma, but still it was a huge step forward compared with the regime of unlimited autocracy. A new situation required a new government composed of people whom the society could trust. Tsar Nicholas II appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sergei Vitte, who had just been able to conclude a peace treaty with Japan by concessions to her half of Sakhalin Island and all of the Kuril Islands.Duma elections were neither direct nor equal, nor universal, but still selected in April 1906. The State Duma was represented by many sectors of society, including peasants (the latter were representatives of the Duma fraction "Trudoviks"). Contemporary of the Tsar (L.D. Lyubimov) describes the first meeting of the king with the first Duma deputies. The meeting took place in the Winter Palace. The king sat in the depths of St. George's Hall on the throne, there were a number of attributes of power: the state flag, state seal, state sword, sprinkled with precious stones, power, the scepter and crown. Right along the walls of the huge hall decorum were dignitaries and courtiers - embroidered in gold and silver uniforms with decorations, sparkling diamonds. On the left there was a crowd of members of the Duma - the intellectuals in jackets, the peasants in the jacket and greased boots, the Belarusians in white tunics, mountaineers in a Circassians, Asians in quilted coats and even some uncle in a light jogging suit of striped flannel and yellow shoes. The king delivered his speech. On the right there were cries of "Hurrah!". Duma members, standing from left were grimly silent. So began the standoff Tsar and the Duma.Among the deputies of the first Duma one third were the liberals (Constitutional Democrats or Cadets), a quarter - left (Trudoviks and Socialists), direct government supporters - less than half. It was clear that such Duma could not make a decision in the main, the agrarian question which could suit the king. Therefore, Nicholas II was replaced the chairman of the Government's liberal Vitte more conservative I.L. Goremykin. However Goremykin’s attempt to cope with the Duma failed. Tsar Nicholas II was planned to disperse the Duma altogether worthless, even though it was a violation of the freedoms promised in the manifesto of October 17. For the dissolution of the Duma a strong and cool man needed. He was found – P.A. Stolypin, who was appointed Interior Minister in July 1906 by Tsar Nicholas II.In one Sunday in July the building of the Duma (the Tavricheskiy Palace) was cordoned off by troops, but in the morning papers were published, that the king dissolved the Duma. The most active part of the deputies went to Viborg, where they released their manifesto, urging people not to pay taxes to this government. When deputies returned from Vyborg to St. Petersburg, the Stolypin had a great temptation to arrest them all, but he decided not to, because of the so-called legislative immunity (as it was new). But it was easy to incite the reactionaries who were paid from the cash register of the Ministry of Interior on the deputies - and several members were killed.A new, second Duma was elected; it was more left than the first. Now one third were Trudoviks and Socialists, the Cadets - a quarter, government supporters were still in the minority. With such a Duma and even Stolypin could not cope. After two months of work (instead of four years), the second Duma was also dissolved. Stolypin now was not polite – he arrested deputies- socialists. Скрыть
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