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Teaching reading of English lessons in the secondary school (Обучение чтению на старшем этапе в образовательной школе).
CHAPTER I THEORETICAL BASE OF THE INVESTIGATION
1.1 Reading as a part of speaking activity
1.1.1 Classification of reading types in accordiance with the phsycological peculiarities of perception
1.1.2 Classification of reading types in accordiance with the aims of teaching
1.2 Psychological and linguistic mechanisms of reading
CHAPTER II THE PROCESS OF TEACHING READING IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL
2.1 The main points in modern methodic of teaching reading
2.2 Communicative approach in teaching reading
2.3 The main types of exercises in teaching reading
2.3.1 Pre-reading Activities
2.3.2 Post reading activities
2.3.3 Teaching reading in practice
1.Бунеев Р.Н., Бунеева Е.В. Что это значит - учить читать? - “Школа 2000...”. Концепции. Программы. Технологии. Вып. 2. М., 1998, с. 80.
2.Зимняя И.А. Педагогическая психология 2-е изд., доп., испр.и перераб. Учебник для вузов. Для студентов педагогических и психологических направлений. 2007 - 384 с.
3.Зимняя И.А. Психология обучения иностранным языкам в школе. – М., 1991. – С. 36.
4.Изаренков Д.И. Базисные составляющие коммуникативной компетенции и их формирование на продвинутом этапе обучения студентов-нефилологов / Д.И.Изаренков // Русский язык за рубежом. – 1990. – № 4. – С.54-60.
5.Карпов И.В. Психологическая характеристика процесса понимания и перевода учащимися иностранных текстов // Теория и методика учебного перевода / Под ред. К.А. Ганшиной и И.В. Карпова. - М.
Показать все - 1950. – С.54.
6.Клычникова З.И.. Психологические особенности обучения чтению на иностранном языке. Изд-во: М. Просвещение. 1983. - 207 с.
7.Кузьменко О.Д., Рогова Г.В. Учебное чтение, его содержание и формы // Общая методика обучения иностранным языкам. Хрестоматия/ Сост. А.А. Леонтьев. Изд-во: М., 1991. - 249 с.
8.Мильруд Р.П. Методика преподавания английского языка. English Teaching Methodolgy. Изд-во: Дрофа, 2005. – 256 с.
9.Мясищев В.Н. Личность и неврозы. – Л., 1960. С. 210-212.
10.Пассов Е.И. Основы коммуникативной методики обучения иноязычному общению. М.,1989, С. 25 - 31.
11.Фоломкина С.К. Обучение чтению на иностранном языке в неязыковом вузе. Учебно-методическое пособие. Издательство: Высшая школа. 2005. - 255 с.
12.Шатилов С.Ф. Методика обучения немецкому языку в средней школе. Издательство: Л.: Просвещение. 1977. – С.155.
13.Bloomfield L. Outline guide for the practical study of foreign languages. Baltimore, 1942.
14.Chomsky N. Aspects of the theory of syntax. – Cambridge, 1965. – Р. 29.
15.David Nunan. World's Leading Textbook Author, Anaheim University Press, accessed February 9th, 2007.
16.Hidi, S., & Anderson, V. (1992). Situational interest and its impact on reading and expository writing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
17.Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon. P.164.
18.Long, M. H., & Crookes, G. (1992). Three approaches to task-based syllabus design. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 27-56.
19.Nunan, D. (1993). Task-based syllabus design: Selecting, grading, and sequencing tasks. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. P.59.
20.Schiefele, U. (1992). Topic interest and levels of text comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
21.Schraw, G., & Dennison, R.S. (1994). The effect of reader purpose on interest and recall. Journal of Reading Behavior, 26, 1-17.
The audio-lingual method (ALM) arose as a direct result of the need for foreign language proficiency in listening and speaking skills during and after World War II. It is closely tied to behaviorism, and thus made drilling, repetition, and habit-formation central elements of instruction. Proponents of ALM felt that this emphasis on repetition needed a corollary emphasis on accuracy, claiming that continual repetition of errors would lead to the fixed acquisition of incorrect structures and non-standard pronunciation.
In the classroom, lessons were often organized by grammatical structure and presented through short dialogues. Often, students listened repeatedly to recordings of conversations (for example, in the language lab) and focused on accurately mimicking the pronunciation and gramm
Показать всеatical structures in these dialogs.
Critics of ALM asserted that this over-emphasis on repetition and accuracy ultimately did not help students achieve communicative competence in the target language. Noam Chomsky argued "Language is not a habit structure. Ordinary linguistic behaviour characteristically involves innovation, formation of new sentences and patterns in accordance with rules of great abstractness and intricacy".1 They looked for new ways to present and organize language instruction, and advocated the notional functional syllabus, and eventually CLT as the most effective way to teach second and foreign languages. However, audio-lingual methodology is still prevalent in many text books and teaching materials. Moreover, advocates of audio-lingual methods point to their success in improving aspects of language that are habit driven, most notably pronunciation.
A notional-functional syllabus is more a way of organizing a language learning curriculum than a method or an approach to teaching. In a notional-functional syllabus, instruction is organized not in terms of grammatical structure as had often been done with the ALM, but in terms of “notions” and “functions.” In this model, a “notion” is a particular context in which people communicate, and a “function” is a specific purpose for a speaker in a given context. As an example, the “notion” or context shopping requires numerous language functions including asking about prices or features of a product and bargaining. Similarly, the notion party would require numerous functions like introductions and greetings and discussing interests and hobbies. Proponents of the notional-functional syllabus claimed that it addressed the deficiencies they found in the ALM by helping students develop their ability to effectively communicate in a variety of real-life contexts.
Learning by teaching is a widespread method in Germany (Jean-Pol Martin). The students take the teacher's role and teach their peers.
As an extension of the notional-functional syllabus, CLT also places great emphasis on helping students use the target language in a variety of contexts and places great emphasis on learning language functions. Unlike the ALM, its primary focus is on helping learners create meaning rather than helping them develop perfectly grammatical structures or acquire native-like pronunciation. This means that successfully learning a foreign language is assessed in terms of how well learners have developed their communicative competence, which can loosely be defined as their ability to apply knowledge of both formal and sociolinguistic aspects of a language with adequate proficiency to communicate.
CLT is usually characterized as a broad approach to teaching, rather than as a teaching method with a clearly defined set of classroom practices. As such, it is most often defined as a list of general principles or features. One of the most recognized of these lists is David Nunan’s five features of CLT:
1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
2. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.
3. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the Learning Management process.
4. An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.
5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.1
These five features are claimed by practitioners of CLT to show that they are very interested in the needs and desires of their learners as well as the connection between the language as it is taught in their class and as it used outside the classroom. Under this broad umbrella definition, any teaching practice that helps students develop their communicative competence in an authentic context is deemed an acceptable and beneficial form of instruction. Thus, in the classroom CLT often takes the form of pair and group work requiring negotiation and cooperation between learners, fluency-based activities that encourage learners to develop their confidence, role-plays in which students practice and develop language functions, as well as judicious use of grammar and pronunciation focused activities.
In the mid 1990s the Dogma 95 manifesto influenced language teaching through the Dogme Language teaching movement, who proposed that published materials can stifle the communicative approach. As such the aim of the Dogme approach to language teaching is to focus on real conversations about real subjects so that communication is the engine of learning. This communication may lead to explanation, but that this in turn will lead to further communication.
1.3 Reading as a part of speaking activity
1.3.1 Types of reading
Diversification and complexity of teaching tasks make us distinguish different groups and methods that in methodological literature are called “types of reading”1.
There are many classifications of reading. Different principles are in the base of them. Nowadays classification of S.K. Folomkina is widespread. She subdivides reading into studying, introductory, skimming and scanning.2
Some researchers classify reading taking into account its psychological peculiarities of perception: translated – non-translated, analytical – synthetical. Other researchers classify reading taking into account conditions of its performance: individual or dependent, prepared – non-prepared; taking into account the amount of reading: extensive – intensive and so on.
1.3.2 Classification of reading types in accordiance with the phsycological peculiarities of perception
Synthetical reading is reading during which attention of a reader is concentrated on the subject-matter of a text, besides this subject-matter is perceived synthesized and fast.
Analytical reading is reading during which attention of a reader is concentrated on the linguistic forming of a text, so, reading is performed much more slowly.
Synthetical reading teaches to understand easy texts without analysis and translating. Analytical reading is served to understand difficult texts with some linguistic problems which can be solved only with translation and analysis.
Translated – non-translated reading is closely connected with the level of mastering of a foreign language.
We use translated reading when a pupil has to translate the whole text not only some difficult parts of it. Non-translated reading is non-translated understanding of a text; it can take place in any stage of education. One of the conditions of performing non-translated reading is pre-reading exercises with vocabulary of the text.
Home reading is compulsory for all pupils additional reading for the purpose of searching information, it should be continuous and plentiful.
Home reading allows pupils to join to reading in a foreign language as a real speech activity.
1.3.3 Classification of reading types in accordiance with the aims of teaching
In accordiance with the aims of teaching we can didtinguish several types of reading. Let’s take skimmimg and skanning first.
For example, scanning a telephone book:
You are looking for it quickly.
You know what you are searching for (key words and names).
You 'see' every item on the page, but you don't necessarily read the pages - you ignore anything you are not looking for. Thus, when you discover the key words being searched for, you will be unable to recall the exact content of the page.
There are some pieces of advice for scan reading:
Scan the entire reading, and then focus on the most interesting or relevant parts to read in detail. Pay attention to when you can skim and when you need to understand every word.
Note the main words when you read. Take notes and talk back to the text. Explicate and mark up the pages. Write down what interests or bores you. Speculate about why. If you get stuck in the reading, think and write about where you got stuck. Contemplate why that particular place was difficult and how you might break through the block. Record and explore your confusion. Confusion is important because it's the first stage in understanding. When the going gets difficult, and you don't understand the reading, slow down and reread sections. Break long assignments into segments. Read 10 pages, then do something else. Later, read the next 10 pages and so on.
Read prefaces and summaries to learn important details about the book. Look at the table of contents for information about the structure and movement of ideas. Use the index to look up specific names, places, ideas. Translate difficult material into your own words. Create an alternative text. After scanning, take a moment to digest what you've just skimmed and to formulate your mental questions about the text. Take a couple of slow, controlled deep breaths, then proceed to read line by line, using your finger. Make sure that you are using online soft focus and absorbing more than one word at once. Do not mouth the words or say them in your head.
Your finger should move quickly, which will force your eyes to follow at the same speed. Each subsequent time that you speed-read a document, move your finger or pointer at a faster pace. With practice your eyes and brain will speed up. As you get better in terms of speed and with your peripheral vision, you will be able to zoom down the page, following your pointer and taking in whole lines or paragraphs at once.
When you read quickly to gain a general impression as to whether the text is of use to you. You are not necessarily searching for a specific item and key words. Skimming provides an 'overview' of the text. Skimming is useful to look at chapter/section headings, summaries and opening paragraphs.
The purpose of skimming is:
To check relevance of text.
Sets the scene for the more concentrated effort that is to follow, if the text is useful.
Skimming is the most rudimentary type of reading. Its object is to familiarize you as quickly as possible with the material to be read. You may use it for entire books or for shorter sections. You leaf through the material looking at titles, subheadings, illustrations, maps, and charts. You are trying to become familiar with the subject matter. Remember, both speed and comprehension depend on familiarity. The more comfortable you are with the manner in which the material is presented, the faster you will move through it and the more you will retain. Two to three minutes is ample time for a chapter, ten to fifteen minutes for a book.
Skimming may also be used to search out certain short passages you have lost. Your eye should race over the pages looking for clues which will help you narrow down the probable location. Though you feel completely lost, the act of skimming will refresh your memory and lead you to the passage. Trust your memory. If it says upper left-hand corner, look there first. With practice you can develop a memory which will allow you to recall the exact location on a page of a piece of information. After that, patient speed will do the rest. Skimming before you start is valuable for any type of reading, even pleasure reading, except perhaps for mysteries.
Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the newspaper, you're probably not reading it word-by-word, instead you're scanning the text. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research.
There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page or screen. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you're seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension. Skimming works well to find dates, names, and places. It might be used to review graphs, tables, and charts.
There are some extra types of reading. For example - light type of reading.
Reading for leisure tends to be 'light':
Reading at a pace which feels comfortable.
Reading with understanding. Скрыть
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