Перевод текста в английского на русский. За английский текст взяты фрагменты из книги Селли Адамс и Винфорда Хикса Interviewing for Journalists. У работы три файла: оригинальный текст, перевод и презентация.
Interviewing is the central activity in modern journalism. It is the main
means by which reporters and feature writers gather their material.
As journalism developed, interviewing became increasingly important...
2 Interviewing as a part of profession
2.1 Journalism is a creative job.
3. Preparing for Interviews
3.1 Face-to-face and telephone
3.2 Planning the interview
3.4 A time and a place
3.5 What to take with you
3.6 What to ask
3.7 When to arrive
4. The interview starts
4.1 Shaking hands
4.2 Eye contact
4.3 What to call them
4.4 Where to sit
4.5 When to begin
5. Some kinds of interviewee
5.1 Interviewing politicians
5.2 Interviewing PRs
5.3 Interviewing celebrities
5.4 Interviewing Children
5.5 Death knocks
Sally Adams, Wynford Hicks
Politicians, gifted with a keen sense of priority, may put on hold interviews with publications they see as tangential to their immediate interests. It took two years of persistent reminders by Nick Pigott, then editor of Railway magazine, before the then secretary of state for the environment, transport and the regions made good his promise of an exclusive interview.A time and a place Most appointments are made and confirmed on the phone. As you can’t see what your interviewee or their secretary/PA is doing.First, you need to identify yourself and your publication, give them an idea of what you want to talk to them about and a rough idea of how long it might take. It’s important to phrase your request so that they sense how they’ll benefit. A proper sense of urgency and pride in your pub
Показать всеlication helps. Be especially careful to check the date and day of the week of your appointment. You might not be looking at the wrong month in your diary, but your interviewee might. So follow up with: ‘That’s Wednesday, 14 October, at 3.30pm – right?’ Interviews over lunch go well, especially when lubricated with alcohol, but you need either a quiet restaurant and a good recorder with a directional mike or the ability to take notes while you eat one-handed, which limits what you order. Few people now have the time to eat first and be interviewed afterwards, and anyway, if you appear at all interested in them, they’re bound to say something quotable while eating, so you’d have to get out your notebook or recorder anyhow. Beware of crowded pubs, cafes, theatre lobbies, anywhere with music. You may ask them for 40 minutes and the interviewee says: ‘Sorry – I can spare you just 15.’ At this point you have to decide whether to risk offending them by asking for extra time, thus getting off on the wrong foot. Alternatively, accept what they offer and make sure the interview is really interesting. Then, unless you’re dealing with an important executive, or someone on a fixed timetable or with a subsequent appointment, you’re likely to be given your extra time. A Radio Five Live presenter told one freelance he could spare a quarter of an hour. Forty-five minutes later they were still talking and, at the end of the interview, the freelance mentioned he’d been generous with his time. ‘Just wanted to be able to get rid of you if necessary,’ the presenter said. Many people are more benevolent, chatty and relaxed after lunch so, if the interviewee or the subject is likely to be tricky, try for the afternoon. Your place or mine? No contest: theirs. They’ll feel more at home and you can see the house, desk, factory, workshop, studio – and how they relate to the people around them. Finally, when scheduling appointments, be sure to make contingency plans: exchange mobile phone numbers, so you can reach one another if either of you has to cancel. What to take with you Before you leave for the interview, check you’ve got what you need. Put everything in a neat file, briefcase or bag. Whatever you do, don’t arrive with shopping or your belongings in a load of carrier bags – you’ll simply look unprofessional. Don’t forget the following: Notebook (plus a spare if the current one is nearly full). Some journalists prefer the traditional spiral-bound reporter’s notebooks, but others choose larger ones, especially for longer interviews. . Pens/pencils. . Recorder, fully charged and ready to go or with sufficient spare batteries. . Headphones (to check the player is working properly and, if your deadline is tight, to enable you to start transcribing the interview on the way back to the office). . Mobile phone. . Business cards. . Address, telephone number and email details of the interviewee. . Map/directions on how to get there. . Copy of the publication you’re writing for. . Background research (just in case you’re early and have time to glance at it again). It’s important to dress suitably and in a way that suits both the occasion and the publication you represent. Politicians and businesspeople usually wear suits, so it’s a great mistake to arrive for an interview with them dressed in T-shirt and jeans. Likewise, if you’re interviewing an up-andcoming rock band, a business suit and tie might be over the top. Emma Lee-Potter, a freelance journalist, recalls when one of her colleagues arrived for work in a polo-neck and jeans at the small weekly paper where they were both trainee reporters. He was immediately sent home to change by the irate editor, who told him: ‘How could I send you to interview the Archbishop of Canterbury looking like that?’ Freelance writer and editor Melanie Whitehouse says it’s vital to dress appropriately. ‘When I interviewed the writer Barbara Cartland I made sure I wore a pink blouse, long pleated skirt, boots, a romantic-looking coat and Dr Zhivago-style fake fur hat. She knew exactly what I was doing but she appreciated it and it made the interview that much easier and more productive. In short, play the game and you’ll be the winner.’ What to ask Research gives you the angle and points up the areas to cover. By this time you will have established what you want to know: what combination of information (facts, names, details), opinion (quotes), background (context) and anecdotes. You must then work out what areas you want to cover, what questions you want to ask. Interview planning includes deciding what topics to cover and how many questions to prepare. Obviously, you must obtain your publication’s ‘must-know’ facts: name, job title, exact name of employing company, annual turnover .Write your topics/questions down on a separate sheet of paper. If you’re using a notebook and doing a business interview, and you need to know such things as last year’s turnover and the percentage increase/fall over the previous year. Though it’s vital to go into the interview with your topics and questions prepared, it’s equally vital to be ready to rephrase them to suit your interviewee once you start. And never forget that, all the time you’re talking, they’re probably trying to work out how the interview will look in print. If they can’t see any advantage to themselves, they may become cagey – the last thing you want. When to arrive Arrive on time or slightly early, even though you may be kept waiting. To be late is unforgivable so, when you set out, allow for possible delays. Once, reporting for a Third World charity quarterly, I found the lift out of order at the interviewee’s building and had to climb three flights of stairs. I’ve still not forgotten the embarrassment of reaching fund-raiser James Tysoe’s office as the hour struck, only to be shown straight in having collected neither my thoughts nor my breath. Flustered is not a good way to start an interview. Obviously you can be more relaxed if you’re driving across country to interview someone at their home. But tycoons, PRs running celebrity junkets, managers and businesspeople all work to tight schedules, and it’s vital to be there for your slot or you may lose it. If you are late, don’t assume all is lost. The best way to avert wrath is to call en route to let them know you’ve been held up – which is why you have your mobile phone and their contact number with you. And now ... You’ve done all your research and thought of a fresh and lively angle; you’ve prepared your topics and questions carefully and are ready to rephrase them to suit your interviewee; you’ve packed your recorder, notebooks, pens, pencils, etc.; you know where you’re going; you’re dressed like the sort of person your interviewee will talk to. You’ve set off in good time, making allowances for traffic and potential hold-ups. All your efforts must now concentrate on the interviewee. The interview startsFirst impressions count. TV dramatist Andrea Newman was once interviewed by seven journalists in one day. She says that, by interviewer number five, she knew in the first few seconds if the interview would work. One writer walked into the hall, sniffed dismissively, and commented ‘Ummmm’. It was a short interview. Nerves and lack of practice handicap the beginner. To make a good first impression, it’s necessary to come through the door in a pleasant but businesslike way. If you’re seeing someone at their place of work you may be asked to wait. Resist all impulses to unpack your bag and recheck you’ve got everything you need. Settle down to wait, confident that you prepared well. It’s wise to read any company literature offered and look around the reception area for clues about your interviewee or the company. Of course listen to any conversations going on around you. If you’re expected, there’s no need to knock and wait. Walk in, right up to the interviewee. If you lurk close to the door you give off the wrong signal. You’re there as a journalist, not a supplicant. Shaking hands The first anxiety for some beginners when they come face-to-face with their interviewee is whether or not to shake hands. If your interviewee advances, hand outstretched, take it without hesitation. Should the interviewee make no gesture either way, then it’s up to you. Shaking hands seems sensible, since it can be revealing, but if your hand is clammy from nerves, brush or rub it dry on your trousers or skirt as you step forward. There’s also the ‘politician’s’ handshake, in which their two hands cover your one. This is usually diagnosed as a wish to project honesty. Of course, some people have less assertive handshakes from necessity or expedience: they may have arthritis, for example, or they use their hands to make a living – such as pianists, puppeteers, embroiderers and surgeons. Eye contact How and how much you look at your interviewee matters vitally – look, please, but don’t stare. Whether they realise it or not, it affects how much they will tell you. Look at them and they know they have your interest. Continue looking and they know they have your full attention, which is flattering. Smile, too: a simple, unforced, pleased-to-meet-you smile. Smiling makes people who smile feel better, so it works in your favour.What to call them If in doubt it’s safer to be formal – ‘Mr’, ‘Mrs’ or ‘Ms’. Some interviewees loathe informality, and using their first name without invitation prejudices them against you immediately. If they’re happy with informality they’ll soon let you know. Only one more ritual to observe. If you haven’t already done so, introduce yourself, giving your name and publication. Where to sit Don’t be in a hurry at this stage. I’d recommend that you don’t sit down until you’re asked to (it gives them a warm feeling that they’re in charge). Take your time before you begin. One good way to start is to thank the interviewee for seeing you. Some journalists won’t do this on principle, reasoning that the interviewees aren’t doing them a favour but hoping to gain from the transaction. However, from the journalist’s viewpoint it’s a wise move. Like smiling, it suggests interest and pleasure. It reassures the nervous and encourages the uncertain. Some kinds of intervieweeInterviewing politiciansAs interviewees, politicians are a breed apart. Even experienced journalists rate them as difficult, and for good reason: most politicians are wary, guileful and well trained. My first interview with an MP ended with him slowly and distinctly dictating his thoughts to me, watching as I took down every word in shorthand. I still cringe at the memory. Politicians are wary and guileful for a good reason: journalists. And journalists interviewing politicians are probing and doubting for an equally good reason: those wary and guileful politicians. ‘A culture of mutual contempt’ is how John Williams, a former director of communications at the Foreign Office, who also worked for the Evening Standard and the Mirror, described the relationship. His greatest worry was the way both parties were despised by the public. Often the reason is that in far too many print and TV interviews the question that the journalists are asking themselves is: ‘Why is this lying bastard lying to me?’ It’s a question that’s funny, pushy and carries with it an aura of superiority. It always gets a laugh – except from politicians. But is it wise? Certainly not when it can be described as ‘knee-jerk cynicism’. Certainly not if, from the moment the journalist and the politician meet, there’s an almost tangible hiss of ‘liar, liar’ in the air. Former minister Michael Portillo, who in his time has been Secretary of State for Defence, Minister of State for Transport, Minister of State for Local Government and Inner Cities and Secretary of State for Employment, says: ‘I very often felt like a prisoner in the dock. I was guilty and had to try and establish my innocence.’ Some politicians just sound as if they have something to hide. Charlie Brooker put it neatly in the Guardian ‘Guide’: there’s ‘the sort of politician who’s programmed to avoid straight answers by default. Each time his brain approaches a straight answer, it’s instantly repelled, as if by an opposing magnetic field.’ How would you react if endless interviewers presumed from the word go that you were lying? No surprise: you’d become wary and guileful. So why not make the interview pleasant? Many politicians respond well to interested and entertaining journalists. It’s wisest at this point not to go on the attack, but rather to adopt a more restrained approach and ask yourself: ‘Why is this clever/troubled/ powerful/ruthless/unhappy politician lying to me?’ Such an attitude is geared towards encouraging you to adopt a more sympathetic and personal approach, asking genuinely curious questions, aimed to encourage valuable responses. The classic ‘conflict question’ Evasive politicians often have good reason for not wanting to answer certain questions, especially those to which, whatever they say, the reply won’t look good. Psychologist Peter Bull, author of The Micro-Analysis of Political Communication: Claptrap and Ambiguity, offers this example: the question Jeremy Paxman asked Tony Blair on television about Iraq’s ‘weapons of mass destruction’ and the suicide of Dr David Kelly, a senior defence scientist. The question was: ‘Do you accept any responsibility, at all, for the death of Dr David Kelly?’ This, says Bull, is a classic ‘conflict question’. However Blair responds to it, the consequences will be bad. If Blair says yes, he does accept some responsibility, it reflects badly on him and his government. If he says no, he accepts no responsibility at all, he looks careless and unfeeling. So what does Blair do? ‘He equivocates,’ says Bull. Paxman repeats the question twice, eventually saying: ‘It’s a question to which you could give a yes or no answer.’ And Blair replies: ‘Yes, but it’s maybe not a question you need to give a yes or no answer to.’ Paxman changes the subject. It does seem that approaches are changing slowly. TV interviewer Jeremy Vine has admitted having ‘quite a high opinion’ of politicians. Their job, he says, is fairly thankless, they probably could earn more elsewhere and they’re ‘treated like something the cat brought in’. He doesn’t share the ‘Why-is-this-lying-bastard-lying-to-me?’ school of thought. ‘If we believe that all politicians do is lie, then what is the point?’ he asks. ‘[The] insular, gossipy world of Westminster lends itself well to the medium of blogging, and several political journalists are now prolific in their online output,’ says Daniel Forman of The House (the magazine for the Houses of Parliament). It’s clear from blogs on the big daily newspapers’ websites that national politics makes a rewarding and lively subject, one that journalists appear to enjoy writing – a few of them going to the extent of replying to some readers. Back to the future There is a theory that journalists’ reputation hit rock bottom after Princess Diana’s death because of the way the paparazzi had behaved. While complaints about accuracy continue to be aimed at journalists, news management is now so sophisticated that we should also question the role of PRs, says Peter Wilby in the Guardian. He describes press relations as ‘the industry that [Alastair] Campbell temporarily joined when he worked for Blair’. Even Alastair Campbell has admitted that ‘Perhaps we were over-controlling, manipulative. People stopped trusting what we had to say’ – though he argued that this was partly the result of ‘hostile and cynical media’. All this means that, when interviewing politicians, journalists should follow the basic guidelines with extra care. Go in having done lots of detailed research, knowing exactly what you want to know, being prepared to listen more than talk and – here’s where empathy becomes more important than ever – able to know what reaction your questions are likely to provoke. To succeed at interviewing politicians it’s valuable to go back and analyse the whole process, from the historical evolution of political interviews to learning how today’s politicians see, use and try to control the media. First, remind yourself what the political interview is meant to represent. Even with today’s technology, there’s no way a politician, minister or local councillor can talk to all the voters. Historically, the journalist’s role was to ask the searching questions that intelligent voters would ask if they had the chance. Unfortunately, that has been distorted, as today’s political journalists will testify. They regularly have to work through PRs, spin doctors, highly sophisticated news managers of all persuasions, so it’s harder to question politicians effectively. However, it remains essential, because politics is one of the most important aspects of life and needs to be taken seriously. It’s also one area where journalists can contribute to the democratic process. Empathise Harold Frayman, now on the Guardian, worked with politicians for more than 20 years. He says: ‘The biggest problem for journalists trying to interview politicians is that most journalists can’t put themselves in politicians’ shoes. They can’t empathise.’ If they did, they might realise how hazardous being a politician can be. Frayman compares politics with business, where you may be subject to a vicious campaign attacking what you’re doing. Скрыть
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