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Strategic human resources management as a tool of developing competitiveness of firm on example of Academy of Russian ballet
Chapter 1. Competiveness of organization: estimation and factors of influence
1.1 Term competiveness and levels of it’s analyzes
1.2 Evolution of programs of waging competitive struggle
1.2.1 Quality circles
1.2.2 Sigma Six
1.3 Influence of human resources on competitiveness of organization
2.1 The competence as a basis of the strategic approach to human resources management
2.2 Instruments of strategic human resources management
2.2.1 Strategic Стратегический personnel selection
2.2.2 Strategic personnel estimation
2.2.3 Strategic personnel compensation
2.2.4 Strategic personnel development
2.3 Implementation of personnel strategy
Chapter 3. Working out of human resources management strategy at Academy of Russian ballet
3.1 Characteristic of Academy of Russian
Показать всеballet and its management models
3.2 The analysis of personnel selection of Academy of Russian ballet
3.3 Experience of personnel selection in European high schools
3.4 Offers on personnel selection perfection in Academy of Russian ballet
List of the used sources and literature
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Показать всевеческими ресурсами. М.: Питер, 2004. 832 c.)
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11.Hamel G., Prahalad C.K. Strategic intent // Harvard Business Review. 1989. May-June. P. 63-76.
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14.Lawler E.E. Creating a Strategic Human Resources Organization: An Assessment of Trends and New Directions. Stanford, 2003. P. 29.
15.Novojilov I. S. Ozenka konkurentnosposobnosti predpriyatiya chernoi metallurgii na primere OAO “NTMK” I OAO “MMK” // URL: http://ntpg.tagil.ru/blackmetal/index.php?cat=5&pages=0 (Новожилов И.С. Оценка конкурентоспособности предприятий черной металлургии, на примере ОАО «НТМК» и ОАО «ММК» // URL: http://ntpg.tagil.ru/blackmetal/index.php?cat=5&pages=0)
16.Odegov U. G., Juravlev P. V. Upravlenie personalom. M. 2005. 1088 р. (Одегов Ю.Г., Журавлев П.В. Управление персоналом. М.: Академический проект, 2005. 1088 с.)
17.Pande P., Holl L. Chto takoe “shest sigm”? Revoluzionnii metod upravleniya kachestvom M. 2004 (Панде П.,, Холл Л. Что такое «шесть сигм»? Революционный метод управления качеством. М., 2004.)
18.Porter M. Konkurentnoe preimuschestvo. Kak dostich visokogo rezultata I obespechit ego ustoichivost. M. 2005. 715 с. (Портер М. Конкурентное преимущество. Как достичь высокого результата и обеспечить его устойчивость. М.: Альпина Бизнес Бокс, 2005. 715 с.)
19.Povishenie konkurentnosposobnosti kompanii: formirovanie rinochnoi strategii I ee prakticheskoe osuschestvlenie // razjyasneniya, soveti I rekomendazii spezialistov v oblasti prakticheskogo marketinga V. V. Kevorkova I D. V. Kevorkova. 2005. № 12. P. 10 (Повышение конкурентоспособности компании: формирование рыночной стратегии и ее практическое осуществление // Разъяснения, советы и рекомендации специалистов в области практического маркетинга В.В. Кеворкова и Д.В. Кеворкова. 2005. №12. С. 10.)
20.Roberts G. Recruitment and Selection: A competency approach. London, 1997. Р. 54.
21.Shekshnya S. V. Upravlenie personalom sovremennoi organizazii. M. 2004. 363 р. (Шекшня С.В. Управление персоналом современной организации. М.: Нева, 2004. 363 с.)
22.Ulrich D. Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations // MITSloan Management Review. 1998. Vol. 39. №.2. P. 15–26.
23.Upravlenie personalom. Pod red. T. U. Bazarova. M, 2004. // URL: http://www.cfin.ru/management/people/pmanbook-5-2.shtml (Управление персоналом. Под ред. Т.Ю. Базарова. М., 2004. // URL: http://www.cfin.ru/management/people/pmanbook-5-2.shtml)
24.Utkin E. A., Kochetkova A. I. Upravlenie personalom v malom I srednem biznese. M. 1996. P. 113-115 (Уткин Э.А. Кочеткова А.И. Управление персоналом в малом и среднем бизнесе. М. , 1996. С. 113-115.)
25.Wood R., Payne T. Competency-based Recruitment and Selection. Wiley, Chichester, 1998. Р. 104.
• In HRM importance of achievement of adherence of mission and the given organization is underlined – HRM «is focused on adherence»;
• In HRM workers are considered as an active, or the human capital, thanks to that training and development possibility of "the training organization» is provided;
• Human resources are considered as a source of competitive advantage, along with the concept of the strategy which are based on resources;
• The approach to the relation with the worker is unitary, but not pluralistic: it is considered that workers will divide interests of the employer even if they will not coincide with their own;
• Realization and development of HRM is a problem of heads of divisions39.
The main objective of human resources management is to provide achievement of success of
Показать все the given organization by means of people. As D.Ulrih and D.Lejk marked, «HRM systems can become a source of such abilities of the organization which will allow it to learn how to use new possibilities for the benefit of the given firm»40. Being more accurate, HRM deals with achievement of the purposes in the following areas: selection of resources and their development, an estimation of employees, mutual relations.
2.1 The competence as a basis of the strategic approach to human resources management
Competence is a set of knowledge, skills and the personal qualities, which allow to solve a certain problem (or set of problems). The competence are described in the form of a set of requirements to knowledge, skills and qualities of the employee for functions, official position or role in the project. If professional skills, knowledge and personal qualities of the expert coincide with requirements to the competence for a certain post, or a target then corresponding work, under other favorable circumstances, can be carried out by such expert qualitatively and effectively41.
Qualification used as a synonym of competence means a degree of development of expert’s this or that competences (first of all - knowledge and skills). The higher qualification is, that is the more competent employee is, the faster and more qualitatively he performs his work within the limits of the competences42.
One of special features of many companies are increased requirements to a set of competences of leading employees. It is connected, first of all, with complexity of products (and-or services) which are created during the process of realization of projects. So the expert who is good in, for example, adjustment of any computer appendices or systems for clients of the company, is appreciated twice more if at the same time he has developed skills of business communication, is capable to train users, to work in a command and possesses so-called client oriented concept, i.e. respect a client and aspire to take into consideration his or her requirements. All skills and qualities shown in the example are separate competences, presence of which are not necessary but extremely desirable for an expert43.
Though it is seldom realized in practice every company aspires to minimize it’s costs, employing and keeping the possible minimum and the possible maximum of versatile experts (qualified jobs). In project organizations success of such approach (in particular in competences, connected with work with a client) is sometimes of a crucial importance44.
The higher complexity of a product created by the company or service, the more company depends on qualification of the key experts and efficiency of application of their cores competences. As an indicator of such dependence it is possible (with some amendments) to use an indicator of a share of expenses for payment of their work in the product or service cost price. So, in consulting companies this share aspires to 100 % (not including an overhead charge) 45.
At the same time there are companies which can be even more, than consulting, who also depend on their key experts whose share of cost in a unit of production is rather insignificant (for example, the aviabuilding enterprises and design offices) 46.
So the higher dependence is, the higher the need for experts who are keen in holding serious competences (for example as it is described in the example above) at high professional level, the higher volumes of indemnifications offered them are47.
The labour market concerning professionals of each concrete narrow specialization, at the same time, the worse conducts it’s duties is worse, the more specific business and projects of the companies-employers are. And this, in turn, is directly connected with a degree of complexity of products and services. So, for example, consulting projects in the field of organizational development are very difficult products. At stable and a growing demand for similar services, growth of the companies, who provide them, it is often limited by impossibility to get and keep enough of key experts with serious and often unique competences48.
Thus, the companies, the added cost of products and services which keep on highly skilled work, constantly combat wage wars for attraction and deduction of highly skilled experts on key positions (and not only administrative). Demand always exceeds the offer.
2.2 Instruments of strategic human resources management
2.2.1 Strategic Стратегический personnel selection
The ultimate goal of a process of selection of the personnel should impose with the minimum expenses to employ certain quantity of workers of a certain quality for satisfaction of requirements of the company in human resources. Procedure of selection of the personnel includes three stages:
1. Definition of requirements – preparation of duty regulations and lists of requirements for candidates; decision-making on employment conditions;
2. Attraction of candidates – review and estimation of internal and external sources of attraction of candidates, placing of announcements of a set, reference to agencies and advisers;
3. Selection of candidates – careful analysis of questionnaires, carrying out of interviews, testing, estimation of candidates, work of the estimated centre, offer on hiring, reception of recommendations; preparation of labour contract49.
What quantity and what categories of workers are required, it is necessary to define in the program of hiring which starts with the plan on human resources. Besides, there can be requirements for time workers or for new works which should be satisfied. These requirements should be supervised to guarantee that they are justified. Especially carefully it is necessary to check up requirement for time workers and to define level or type of demanded workers. Requirements to concrete posts are stated in the form of duty regulations and profiles of the person. They give the basic information, necessary to make the announcement of vacancy, to employ agency or advisers for selection of the personnel and to estimate candidates. The role profile in which requirements to competence are listed, to skills, formation and professional experience, sets working criteria on which candidates will estimate on interview or by means of psychological tests.
In duty regulations basic elements of working process are stated: submission, overall working aim, principal views on work or problems being solved and some other special requirements or characteristics. For hiring the information concerning actions for improvement of professional skill, development and possibilities of career growth can be given. Working conditions – wages, additional payments etc. – also join duty regulations act, as well as special requirements, for example: travelling, business trips or work during evening and night time.
The list of requirements to the candidate (which sometimes is called as list of equirements at employment, requirements to personnel or work specification), defines, what formation, additional training, qualification, professional experience and competence are required from the worker, holding a certain post.
Requirements to the candidate can be stated as follows:
1. Competence – what is necessary for worker to know and be able to cope with his duties including any demanded special abilities or skills;
2. Qualification and additional training – a working, technical either humanitarian speciality or additional vocational training which the candidate should have;
3. Professional experience – in particular, categories of work or the organizations; types of achievements and kinds of activity which, most likely, will lead to success in the future;
4. The requirements connected with specificity of work, - achievements in the particularly fields of activity which are expected from the worker, for example development of the new markets, increase in sales or introduction of new systems; Conformity to the organization – corporate culture (for example, formal or informal) and ability of the candidate to work in it;
5. Special requirements – business trips, work during evening and night time, travelling, etc.
6. Satisfaction of expectations of the candidate – in what degree the organisation can satisfy expectations of the candidate concerning possibilities of career growth, improvement of professional skill, stability of work etc50.
Key sections of the list which are used in the structured selection interview are: competence, qualification and professional experience. In a role definition, with a view of interview carrying out, expectations concerning productivity and the requirement to competences are stated. However to give the candidates full representation about conditions and prospects of career growth, possibly more information is required.
After requirements are established, it is necessary to carry them on corresponding sections. It can be made in various ways. The easiest approach – to list and allocate obligatory and desirable requirements on key sections: the competence, qualification and additional training, professional experience. It is possible to give the additional information concerning the requirements connected with specificity of work. Alternatively it is possible to use one of traditional systems of qualification.
The most known is a scheme developed by Roger which includes seven sections, and the system of classification created by D.Manro-Freizer, and consists of five sections.
Roger's scheme includes:
• Physical characteristics – health, constitution, appearance, behaviour and speech manner;
• Knowledge – formation, speciality, professional experience
• The general intelligence – the general mental abilities
• special abilities – technical skills, skills in manual work, ability to communicate easy or count
• Interests – intellectual, practical, design, connected with physical activity, public, art,
• Character – tolerance, hardness, reliability, self-trust
• Environment – the family environment, professions of members of a family51.
The system of classification of D.Manro-Freizer includes:
1. Influence on others – physical characteristics, appearance, speech, manners,
2. Maintained qualification – formation, vocational training, an operational experience,
3. Knacks – natural ingenuity and ability to training,
4. Motivation – the purposes which the person puts, sequence, resoluteness and success in achievement,
5. Adaptability – emotional stability, ability to resist to stress, ability to get on with people52.
From these two systems Roger's scheme has a longer history. System of Manro-Freizer, somewhat, easier, and it places emphasis on aspects of development of career of the candidate. Both of them can serve as suitable structure for interview, but now interviewers even more often use the approach based on competences.
The approach based on competences means that the competence, established for a role, are used as a basis of selection process. As Roberts considers: «Benefit from application of the approach based on competences means that people can reveal and allocate key characteristics which they wish to take for a basis for selection, and that these characteristics describe them in terms which not only can be understood but also which can be agreed on … Therefore competence becomes a component for selection»53.
Such approach helps to define, what methods of selection - psychological testing or the estimated centre – with the greatest probability will give the helpful information. It gives the information necessary for carrying out structured interview which questions are concentrated to concrete spheres of the competence. It allows to establish, in what degree candidates correspond to the list of requirements made in terms of competences.
R.Wood and T.Pain have as follows generalised advantages of the approach based on competences:
• It raises accuracy of forecasts concerning suitability of candidates,
• It promotes selection of the candidate, whose personal qualities most fully correspond to work requirements
• It helps the interviewer to avoid drawing up of "hasty" opinion,
• On its basis it is possible to create variety of trial and error methods of the personnel – questionnaires, interview, tests, the estimated centres54.
This approach from the point of view of professional competence which says what workers are expected to be able to do if they intend to reach in the work demanded results. It also can include in itself definition of necessary behavioural competences which tell about personal characteristics and the samples of behaviour necessary for successful display of skills of interpersonal dialogue, leadership, vigour, communicative skills, abilities to work in a command and analytical abilities.
The competence, used with a view of personnel selection, should satisfy the following criterias:
1. They should concentrate on those areas of a working or educational life in which candidates will show the competence, for example leadership, work in command, initiative;
2. They with certain probability predict success of performance of work, for example, motivation of achievement;
3. They can be estimated in the course of the interview, devoted to certain events of professional work in which if, for example, key sphere of competence is the management of group, candidates are possible to be asked to give examples of successful activity on creation of group and its getting to action;
4. They can be used as criteria in the estimated centre55.
The approach from a competence position in these directions can give the effective remedy of revealing of suitable candidates which will be a part of process of regular selection.
Attraction of candidates is, first of all, a question of revealing, an estimation and use of the most suitable sources. However there, where difficulties in attraction of candidates meet or expected, possibly, it is necessary to study preliminary factors which, most likely, involve or push away strong and weak points of the organisation as employer.
The core selection methods are interviews, the estimated centres and tests. One more method which is seldom used in Great Britain and wider in other European countries, is graphology.
Thus, the set and selection of the personnel with the use of shown above techniques is carried out to fill current requirements of this or that company with qualified personnel. Thus it is important to carry out selection of the personnel proceeding from strategic reasons, namely it is necessary to be guided by search of such skills, abilities and personal qualities which the companies for successful development and growth are required, also it is necessary to think not only of today's requirements of the organisation, but also about future (taking into account change of external conditions).
2.2.2 Strategic personnel estimation
The estimation of kinds of works is a regular process of establishing a relative value of various kinds of works in this or that organisation. It is intended for the following:
• To create a reasonable basis for designing and maintenance of fair and defensible structure of wages;
• To promote management of relative distinctions in the wages, existing between posts in the organisation;
• To make the co-ordinated decisions on complexity of works and wages rates;
• To compare value of different kinds of works so it is possible to provide equal payment for equal work56.
The estimation of kinds of works allows to make decisions on a payment. It can promote carrying out of comparison of works in the organisation and, to some extent, between the organisations, giving common language for discussion of relative value of kinds of works and workers.
For example, Armstrong and the Baron have found out that 55 % of three hundred sixteen surveyed organisations had the official program of an estimation of kinds of works. It has been confirmed that necessity to provide more fair structure of a payment was a principal cause of introduction of such programs. Usually the organisations enter an estimation of kinds of works when they «wish to transform chaos into an order, inconsistency into sequence and logically to prove political decisions»57.
However the work estimation is not a scientific objective system which after introduction is capable to eliminate at once problems with internal relative distinctions in payment, an establishment of rates of payment and the control over payment structure. The assessment of works should be considered more as process, instead of as system. This process can be regular, and it can reduce objectivity, but it will always be «more art, than a science», and as it is based on opinions of people, it never will be completely objective58.
It is accepted to carry the following to the main features of an assessment of works:
• Comparison Process – it deals with relations, instead of with absolute figures.
• The Process based on expert estimations – it demands an estimation at interpretation of the data about works and roles (definitions of works and roles or questionnaires with the full analysis of kinds of works), comparisons of one work to another, comparisons of kinds of works to a scale of levels. Besides, it demands working out of classification structure on the basis of comparison of complexity of works, possibility of such comparison is provided with an assessment of works.
• Analytical process – the estimation of kinds of works can be connected with expert estimations, but this process is based on the judgements which have been buttressed up by facts; it is the analysis of the actual information on kinds of works, regular sorting of the data, revealing of various elements and their subsequent "assemblage" in a standard format which can be applied to a concrete situation.
• Structured process – estimation of kinds of works is structured in the sense that a certain system helps experts, though as these criterias always are subject to interpretation, they cannot guarantee that judgements always will be consecutive and proved59.
The estimation of kinds of works begins with definition of kinds and quantity of works which will be considered. Besides, it is necessary to solve, whether it is necessary to apply one scheme to everything, or there should be separate schemes for various levels and categories of workers.
There are some categories of schemes of an estimation: not analytical, analytical, the individual factor, based on qualification or competence, market pricing and the program of advisers for management, so-called personal trade marks. Скрыть
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