Российские Коммерческие Банки как субьекты кредитного рынка:их функции и операции.
1. Principles of the commercial bank organizing
1.1 Maintenance and role of commercial banks
1.2 Credit system’s organization in Russia
1.3 Commercial banks in credit system and their function
1.4 Credit process and its stages.
1.5 Principles of crediting.
2. The characteristic of the basic operations of commercial banks
2.1 Definition of credit operations
2.2 Definition of the loan
2.3 Types of loan operations
2.4 Classification of the commercial banks credits
3. Assessment of a current state and prospects for the development of Banking in Russia
3.1 Analysis of a condition of the credit market of the Russian Federation
3.2 Estimation of a credit policy of commercial bank
3.3 Prospects for development of commercial bank credit operations
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Appendix 1 Credit process
Appendix 2 Mechanism of crediting
Appendix 3 Structure of banc active operations
Appendix 4 Bank credit
Appendix 5 Reserve Bank credit
Appendix 6 Bank credit of all commercial banks
1.The civil code of Russian Federation.- M.: 11/30/1994 N 51-FL
2.The federal law “About joint-stock companies”.-M.: 12/26/1995 N 208-FL
3.The federal law ""About banks and bank activity”. -M.: 12/2/1990 N 395-1
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8.Development of bank crediting system in Russia// Problems of modern economy, 2009.- N 4(28)
9.Ermasova N. Credit process stages. Management of the credit//h
Показать всеttp://www.inventech.ru/lib/money/money0055/. №12
10.Ermasova N. Stages of credit process. Management of the credit//Financial director, 2008.- №12
11.Hein, Scott E.; Koch, Timothy W.; MacDonald, S. Scott The changing role of commercial banks in the municipal securities market// Credit & Banking, 2001
12.Iseev R.Sekjuritizatsija of hypothecary credits: transaction economy//The securities market. – 2004. – №24. -4 p..
13.Kalashnikov Z.V.prospect of development of the mechanism of crediting of trading organisations by the Russian commercial banks//Financial management, 2008, №12.-10 p
14.Lukyanov E.R. Rissian credit market is not as big as in western // Financial management, 2009.-№4
15.Money. Credit. Banks The textbook for high schools / E.F.Zhukov, L.M.Maksimova, A.V.Pechnikova, etc.; Under the editorship of prof. E.F.Zhukov ""— М: Banks and stock exchanges, Unity, 2000. — 622 p.
16.Problems of f of credit system in Russia//http://vdollarah.ru/2009/09/19/problemy-formirovaniya-kreditnoj-sistemy-v-rossii/
17.Smirnov Е.Е. Ways of growing of crediting //Banking, 2009.-№4
18.Tarhanova E.A. Role and function of the commercial bank in Russian economy//http://bankdata.ru/modules/Articles/article.php?storyid=114
19.The Banking System of the Russian Federation http://russiatoday.strana.ru/en/biz/econ/bank_sys/2069.html
20.The credit market has stood in ""unstable balance "" //http://www.wfin.kz/node/4556
21.The general theory of money and the credit .Edited by E.F. Zhukov.-М.:Unity, 2003
22.Yan Art Credit Russia//Profil, 2009 Скрыть
1. What kind of maintenance;
2. Who the owner of maintenance;
3. Where and under whose control it is;
4. As the estimation of property offered as maintenance has been carried out.
5. Questions on relations of the client with other banks:
1. Why the client has come to this bank;
2. What services of banks the client uses now;
3. Whether he addressed for the credit to other banks;
4. Whether the client has outstanding credits, what their sum and repayment terms.
For decision-making bank has to define:
1. Gravity, reliability and credit status of the borrower, its reputation as possible partner in business. Especially it concerns new clients;
2. Validity of the credit demand and degree of security of return of the credit. The bank can develop in case of need the requireme
Показать всеnts to the credit offer and acquaint with them the borrower;
3. Conformity of the credit offer to the credit policy of bank and structure of formation of its credit portfolio. Whether granting of the new credit of the further diversification of a credit portfolio and to decrease in credit risk or return results will lead16.
The main point of the analysis of any credit demand and accompanying documents is definition of character of the borrower and its credit status.
Picture 1.4.2 - Analysis of credit demand
Such complex approach will allow to understand, on the one hand, the mechanism of granting of bank credits, both short-term, and long-term, and with another — to analyse functions of credit experts at various stages of credit process for the purpose of development of offers on its optimisation17 (Appendix 2 Mechanism of crediting).
Picture 1.4.3 – Complex approach
The following stage of credit process in bank is a management of the credit. It is necessary to divide into management of the loan capital at macrolevel and microlevel. Development of credit relations in interrelation with macroeconomic proportions is always important to analyze and macroleve, together with volumes and structure of credit investments in economy to the decision of problems on increase in a total internal product, development of a monetary turn, investments, inflation decrease etc.
Operating credit relations, the society should provide observance of laws of the credit - reflexivities of the lent cost, preservation of its equivalence and balance between accumulated and redistributed resources. Regulating credit relations, the society has an opportunity to accelerate and expand reproducing process.
At microlevel management of crediting process provides working out and observance of strategy of development of credit operations of each separate bank, search, selection of clients, credit status studying, control of credit use in an economy of the borrower etc. Through process short-term and long-term crediting there is a function of redistribution of monetary streams in a country financial system. Business unit demand for circulating assets is satisfied with the offer from commercial banks of the free financial resources involved in turn from the market of deposits and private contributions. In general credit process is a reception and ways of realisation of the credit relations located in certain sequence and accepted by given bank. Crediting process is the difficult procedure consisting from several cumulative stages.
Market level formation of loan interests deviation from average rate have influenced as to the general factors operating at macrolevel, and private, underlying carrying out of a interests policy of separate creditors. Number of the general factors are:
1. Level of the rate of refinancing;
2. A parity of a supply and demand;
3. A regulating orientation of a policy of the Central bank of the Russian Federation;
4. Degree of inflationary depreciation of money.
By means of norm of interests the parity of a supply and demand of the credit is counterbalanced. It promotes a rational combination of own and borrowed funds. In the conditions of market formation of level of loan percent attracted in a turn of borrowed funds is the credit of time and necessary additional requirements favourable only at a covering. Any excessive use of the credit reduces the general level of profitability of investments.
By interest regulation the volume of deposits is carried out. Growth of requirements of an economy in credits should be covered by a corresponding gain of bank deposits as credit facilities. It conducts to increase of depositary interest rates till the size counterbalancing the deposits offer and demand for them from outside of bank. On the contrary, at reduction of economy requirements in credits incomes of bank of given loans will decrease. Bank can Increase profit by reduction of passive operations. Thus, reduction of resources inflow in credit system is reaction to decrease in requirements of an economy in extra means.
The interest bearing police of commercial bank is directed today on corresponding management of liquidity of its balance.
The level differentiation of loan interests on active operations depending on liquidity of investments leads to conformity of demand for the brave credit from outside borrowers to requirements of liquidity of banks balance . The role of percent on depositary operations as stimulus of attraction of the steadiest means in a credit institution turn is similarly traced.
Established by the Central bank of the Russian Federation the rate of a payment for resources along with norm of obligatory reserves and conditions of release and the reference of the state securities gradually becomes a management effective remedy commercial banks. Without resorting to direct regulation of the interest bearing police of the last, the Central bank of the Russian Federation defines unity of a percentage policy in economy scales, stimulating increase or fall of interest rates.
1.5 Principles of crediting.
The credit policy of commercial bank is based on certain principles of crediting, i.e. under certain conditions on which the bank gives separate categories of credit to separate borrowers. In bank practice promptness and reflexivity differentiation, availability against interest payments, security and a target orientation.
Promptness of the credit assumes what the credit have to be returned in precisely certain term established by the credit contract. Credit payment period is for the creditor the basis to apply to the borrower penal sanctions, for example increase in the raised percent, and at the further delay (in Russia - over three months) - credit returning in the full sum and percent on the credit in a judicial order.
Credit reflexivity means necessity of return of the credit for the certain term established in the credit contract. Terms of return of the credit are established taking into account its special-purpose designation, a kind and crediting term. The credit reflexivity means normal functioning of bank and all bank system, and, accordingly, a credit reflexivity has huge value for stable functioning of all economy.
At the present stage of formation and bank system development , in the conditions of unstable economic conditions in the Russian Federation the problem of maintenance of a timely reflexivity of the credit is one of the most important practical problems facing to commercial banks.
The credit reflexivity is closely connected with its maintenance, i.e. depends on ability of the borrower to give necessary and sufficient guarantees of timely return of the credit. Security of the credit expresses necessity of maintenance of protection of property interests of the creditor at possible infringement by the borrower of the obligations taken up18.
Nowadays it is impossible to be assured that the borrower will return the credit and will pay percent on it even if its financial condition is stable also directions of an investment of means are favorable. Therefore the question on firm maintenance of the credit, i.e. on additional guarantees of its reflexivity is very important.
The most widespread forms of maintenance of a reflexivity of credits are pledge, guarantees of banks, insurance of credits. The most reliable maintenance - guarantees of banks. Besides their registration is not connected with additional difficulties. If the bank-guarantor reliable to make the decision on delivery of the credit it is much easier.
The major problem of banks is development of all listed forms of maintenance of a reflexivity on the basis of the new legislation and world experience in practice.
As a whole maintenance of a reflexivity of the credit is the multiplane process consisting in reception by banks of as much as possible full, exact and actual information on the borrower, an estimation its credit status by the analysis of financial condition and the purpose/. After carrying out of such work the bank makes the decision on granting (or an unaccordance) of the credit and defines its sizes, the interest rate under the credit, an order of repayment of the loan and payment of percent, and also every possible privileges and penal sanctions.
Maintenance of a reflexivity of credits includes skilful management of actives, observance of a principle of a diversification of actives (and passives) in order to avoid the big financial losses and bankruptcy of bank.
Interest payments is expressed that the borrower have to pay to the bank for the temporary use of money. The principle interest payments is realised by bank through the percentage policy of bank, i.e. the payment for credits is raised in the form of the percent which size is established by the agreement between the creditor and the borrower in the credit contract. The credit interest rate - some kind of cost of bank resources is provided compensation of expenses on supplementary operations and the maintenance of employees, reception of profit and other expenses of bank.
Interest payments carries out following functions:
- Redistribution of free money resources legal and physical persons;
- Regulation of production and the reference by redistribution of credit resources on micro- both macroeconomic and interstate levels;
- Regulation of inflationary processes during the crisis periods
In world bank practice there are also interest-free credits, for example, Islamic banks carry out the operations on the interest-free basis, some Russian and foreign banks give interest-free credits to the friends, acquaintances and relatives.
The principle of credit differentiation means that interest rates under credits depend on a kind, term and a target orientation of the credit. For example, the interest rate under short-term credits is highter than on long-term, depends on credit risk of each business deal percent for it. The differentiation of crediting depends on indicators of solvency and credit status of the borrower19.
The target orientation of the credit extends on the majority of categories of credit, expressing necessity of target use of the received means the borrower from the creditor. The credit should be used strictly for the designated purpose. For example, the credit received on wages payment should not be used on acquisition commodity-material assets.
2. The characteristic of the basic operations of commercial banks
2.1 Definition of credit operations
Credits are not only the major type of active operations, but it also provide overwhelming weight of banks current incomes, especially in high interest rates conditions.
Credit commercial banks an operation is a type of the active operations connected with crediting. The great number of credits stands out banks on security. There are some ways of maintenance of credits by different kinds of client property or obligations of the third part. Obligation property that admits in maintenance of credits (on the security) should meet such requirements:
to be highly liquid. Actives liquidity is a possibility of long storage (at least throughout term of repayment of the credit);
prices stability for a mortgaged property;
low expenses on storage and pledge realisation.
Depending on how much the mortgaged property meets the given requirements, the volume of the bank credit is changed. The size of the loan on the security of property is established in percentage to market cost of pledge at the moment of the credit agreement conclusion. Excess of the pledge price over the credit sum is an indemnification of loss, change of the property prices. In case of debtor insolvency the creditor has the right of selling the pledge to compensate a client debt and selling expenses. The remained gain comes back to the client. If sum will be not enough, the creditor has the right of the financial claim to the borrower.20
According to the practice of developed countries the most widespread charged security are: a third party guarantee, an assignment of a contract, account receivable, commodity stocks, road documents, real estate, stocks, precious metals.
The guarantee — is a third party duty to liquidate a borrower debt in case of its insolvency. The guarantee is made out as an independent duty of the guarantor or as a transfer inscription on the debt requirement. The guarantor can be banks as well.
Assignment of a contract. These forms of maintenance of crediting are uses for the building companies or the firms crediting that are carrying out regular deliveries of the goods (rendering of services) under the contract. The debtor concedes to bank the contract and cash receipts from the customer (buyer) in debts repayment under loans.
Maintenance with commodity stocks. Pledge parties are raw materials, finished goods act. Advantage is given to the stock exchange goods. Conditions of use of commodity stocks as pledge are its insurance. There are two ways of registration of this maintenance: under warehouse receipts and under safe receipts. At the first way the pledged goods are withdrawn from the borrower, transferred to storage of the warehouse company. Warehouse receipts are credit maintenance. After repayment of the credit the bank writes out the warrant on delivery of the goods to the client. At the second way the goods are on responsible storage at the borrower, but the control over it is entrusted to representatives of a creditor bank or the third parties (for example, the warehouse company). In this case the maintenance safe is receipts. The most widespread way of preservation of pledge for the borrower is the second because the first is connected with high expenses that are reflected in the credit cost. The second way allows to lower expenses on preservation of pledge but raises risk of bank. Crediting under safe receipts demands high reliability of the client. An element of maintenance of the credit is the bill of the borrower. This way of registration of maintenance is applied at crediting of retail firms and wholesale trade.
Maintenance with road documents is used at crediting of export-import trading operations. In this case as pledge under short-term loans the documents confirming shipment of the goods (the consignment and waybills) . Consignments are applied to shipment registration by commodity-material assets sea and river transport, waybills — other types of transport. This way of maintenance of the credit is made out by indexation of documents that are called as owners in favour of a creditor bank. A condition of granting of the credit on security the road document is cargo insurance
Maintenance with real estate is usually used by granting of the big long-term credits of hypothecary credits having the name. As pledge under hypothecary credits can act: for industrial, trading firms, farms — the ground areas, industrial and agricultural structures, premises, and communications; for individual borrowers — houses, apartments. Maintenance is made out by the promissory note of the borrower — the mortgage. By some kinds of hypothecary loans (for example, the consumer credit) the bank can sell mortgages of borrowers to individual investors. It is carried out by release (issue) of securities, as a rule, bonds provided with mortgages. Bonds arrive on a securities market and are on sale. The bank directs the obtained money to a turn. Payments of borrowers under hypothecary loans (payments in a covering of the credit and percent) are distributed by bank among owners of bonds. The bank profit consists of a difference between the loan percent paid by the borrower, and percent on securities that the bank pays to their owners.
Maintenance with a personal estate. As a pledge bank accept such kinds of a personal estate:
for industrial, trading and other firms, farms — the equipment, cars, mechanisms, stock, vehicles, horned livestock, etc.;
for individual borrowers — the goods of long-term application (also privately owned vehicles).
Maintenance with securities. As a pledge bank accept the state securities and corporation papers. An indispensable condition is high liquidity of securities. Borrowed funds should not be used for purchase of new securities, it is directed on restriction of exchange gamble of borrowers and risk decrease of clients bankruptcy.
Maintenance with precious metals. As pledge bank accept coins, ingots, products from gold, silver, platinum, jewels, etc. This means of maintenance at present is used seldom.
All questions connected with realisation and planning of crediting, definition of conditions and payment of bank services, solve commercial banks with the client on a contractual basis.
Credits are given by banks to various organisation and physical persons at the expense of own and borrowed funds: own funds, client money, current, urgent and other accounts, the interbank credit; the funds mobilised by bank in time using by release of debt securities.
2.2 Definition of the loan
Loan operations are the granting of money resources to the bank client in the process of crediting on the basis of promptness, a reflexivity and availability for a price.
The account of loans on each object of crediting is conducted on the opened loan accounts. The account of short and long term loans that have been given out to one client is conducted on separate balance accounts. The sum of the given out loan and its repayment are reflected under the debit of the loan account. The mode of the loan account is defined in the contract: given out loan can be listed on settlement (correspondent); the account of the borrower; the bank can pay client expenses for the financed transaction in process of receipt of the corresponding settlement; documents, gradually increasing the size of loan debts of the client, but not above the sum of the given credit defined in the contract.
Depending on client requirements and interests of bank it can be opened a simple loan account or a special loan account. Specificity of crediting under the special loan account is unlike the simple. Delivery of loans is not made out documentary each time, and it is made on the basis of the statement-obligation that is given to bank by the borrower at opening loan accounts. Loans stand out as required by payment of settlement documents, and their repayment occurs by a gain direction directly into the special loan account, passing the settlement. Only one special loan account can be opened to the client in bank.
Many banks practice an establishment of the so-called minimum compensatory rest on. i.e. the reservation of a certain part of the loan given out by bank. The size of the compensatory rest, which client has no possibility to use, fluctuates from 10 to 20 % of the given out loan. Thereby the real sizes of the given out loan are essentially underestimated and essentially cost of similar services raises. Скрыть
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